The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Myanmar) participated in the World Census of Agriculture in 1953/1954; however, the coverage of that census was limited to 2 143 village tract in a neighbourhood of 252 townships. A Sample Census of Agriculture was conducted in 1993, followed by a complete full coverage census in 2003. The 2010 Census of Agriculture (CA), to which the present metadata review and data refer, is the fourth CA to be conducted in Myanmar.
The Myanmar Census of Agriculture (CA) 2010 was the fourth census of agriculture conducted in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar (RoUM). This was also the fourth census supported by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Unlike the past 3 censuses, the CA 2010 was a supplementary module that complemented the data collected in the Listing of Households and Holdings in 2009. Such listing operation was done by the Settlement and Land Records Department (SLRD) of the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MoAI). The MCA 2010 utilized sample households with agricultural holdings that engaged in crop cultivation and/or keeping livestock and/or poultry during specific reference period.
Objectives of the MCA 2010 SM:
The main objective of the MCA 2010 Supplementary Module (SM) was to provide basic data on the current agricultural situation in the country for the use of the planners and policy-makers. Specifically, the new set of census data would be useful in terms of calculating the current structure of crop holdings as well as livestock and poultry holdings and aquaculture activities in the county. It could also be used in selecting a sub-sample of agricultural households for future agricultural surveys.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the study includes agriculture, livestock, labour, aquaculture, forestry and infrastructure.
Agriculture & Rural Development
Land (policy, resource management)
Environmental Health/ Pollution Management
Forests & Forestry
Food (production, crisis)
Information & Communication Technologies
Community Driven Development
The statistical unit was the agricultural holding, defined as an economic unit of agricultural production under single management, comprising all livestock kept and all land used wholly or partly for agricultural production purposes, exceeding a certain physical threshold, regardless of title and legal form" (see section 7 below). Two main types of holdings were distinguished in the CA 2010: (i) household agricultural holdings; and (ii) special holdings. Special holdings included the holdings operated by non-household holdings (corporations, institutions, etc.) and by "special households".
Producers and sponsors
Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation (MoAI)
The Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Settlement and Land Record Department
National Census Steering Committee
Food and Agriculture Organization
The following census methodologies used in the MCA 2010 SM and their limitations should be noted.
1. The CM of the fourth MCA was used only in selecting sample villages at the township level. The sampling design used was probability proportional to size (PPS).
The CM results were used in selecting the sample villages, in which all households were listed. Subsequently, all those with holdings were identified during the SM. During the listing carried out for the CM, only the households with small agricultural holdings in sample villages were subjected to systematic sampling and simultaneously interviewed. However, all households with large agricultural holdings identified during
the listing in sample villages and all large holdings enumerated during the CM in non-sample villages in every township were completely enumerated during the conduct of the SM. Likewise, all ward agricultural holdings purposively chosen during the CM were also completely enumerated or interviewed during the SM.
The sampling design of the MCA 2010 SM was carried out in two stages. The first stage was the selection of sample villages at the township level using PPS. The primary sampling unit (PSU) in the first stage was the village and the domain was the township. Using the CM results, the number of households engaged in small agricultural holdings (crop cultivation and/or livestock/poultry keeping) was used as indicators. The following procedures were used in getting the number of sample villages and in selecting these villages.
a) All villages in every township were arranged according to their geographic codes. Then the number of households engaged in small agricultural holdings was cumulated starting from the first village down to the last village in the township. The cumulated number of households with small agricultural holdings in the last village in the township was equal to the total number of small agricultural holdings reported in the township during the CM.
b) The total number of households with small agricultural holdings in the township was divided by twenty percent of the total number of villages to get the sampling interval (SI).
c) Between 1 and the sampling interval, a random number was chosen to determine the succeeding numbers of the villages to be included in the sample. The succeeding numbers of the villages were determined using the following series of formulas starting at the random start: RS; RS+SI; RS+2SI; RS+3SI; RS+4SI; RS+5SI; …; RS+ (n-1) SI.
d) After the sample villages were determined, the number of households with small agricultural holdings reported in the CM for these sample villages was used to determine the expected number of sample small agricultural holdings. This expected number was not yet the final number of sample agricultural holdings to be enumerated. This either increased or decreased depending on the results of the listing of all households in the sample villages. The sampling rate used in computing the number of sample villages at the township level was 20 percent.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Four questionnaires were used for holding-level data collection in the SM:
· Form A - the questionnaire for crop cultivation;
· Form B - the questionnaire for keeping or breeding livestock;
· Form C - the aquaculture holding questionnaire; and
· Form D - the household questionnaire;
CA Form A - Questionnaire for crop cultivation:
a) Legal status of the holder.
b) Parcel characteristics (number, area of the holding, area of each parcel, location, land type, main land use, land tenure, area irrigated and type of irrigation).
c) Crops planted: annual crops (name, code, cropping duration, area planted, cropping pattern and area harvested and quantity of production for ten major annual crops) and permanent crops (name, code, area if compact plantation and number of productive trees if scattered planting).
d) Agricultural practices: use of tool/machine/equipment (kind, number owned and number borrowed/rented), use of agricultural building/structure (kind, number and whether occupied or not), use of other agricultural practices (fertilizers, pesticides/herbicides/insecticides, rice seeds of high yielding variety (HYV), contour/terrace farming, weeding of crop fields and building dike to preserve water/prevent flood) and type of rice seeds of HYVs.
e) Hired labour (outside labour whether full-time or part-time or seasonal labourers).
CA Form B -Questionnaire for keeping/breeding livestock/poultry
a) Legal status of the holder.
b) Livestock kept according to the number by kind, breed, age and sex of large livestock and small livestock (minus the breed).
c) Poultry kept according to the number by kind and number of weeks.
d) Disposal of livestock/poultry in the past twelve months.
e) Disposal of livestock/poultry products.
f) Hired labour.
g) Equipment used in the livestock/poultry holding.
h) Building/structure used in the livestock/poultry holding.
i) Agricultural crops growing around the livestock/poultry holding as of day of visit.
CA Form C - Aquaculture holding questionnaire
a) Legal status of the holder.
b) Number of aquaculture activities.
c) Aquaculture characteristics (number, surface physical area of each aqua-farm, location, type of water, production facility, main species cultured, means of disposal, whether producing fry and/or fingerlings).
d) Machinery/equipment used in the aquaculture holding.
e) Household members involved (for household-based only) by age and sex.
f) Hired labour.
g) Agricultural crops growing around the aquaculture holding.
CA Form D - Household questionnaire
a) Holding population (total number, name, relation to head, sex, age, education attained, marital status, economic activity and involvement in own holding).
b) Forestry-related activity (whether engaged or not and type of activity).
c) Small-scale fishing activity (whether engaged or not, main person responsible, main purpose, fishing location, fishing gear and fishing boat).
d) Food accessibility.
CA Form E - Village tract questionnaire
a) Type of soil existing in the village tract.
b) Topography of the village tract.
c) Mode of transport.
d) Main economic activities.
e) Existence of seasonal labour movement.
f) Incidents of natural disaster within previous five years.
g) Agricultural land area.
h) Number of times of crop cultivation.
i) Availability of agroprocessing equipment/machines.
j) Available school in the village tract.
k) Communication facilities.
l) Health facilities.
m) Water facilities.
n) Access to roads and markets.
o) Presence of women's organization.
p) Existence of NGO/INGO in the village tract.
q) Characteristics of the people residing in the village tract.
In addition, a questionnaire was used for the community survey (Form E - the village tract questionnaire). The census covered all 16 core items recommended by FAO for collection in the WCA 2010 round.
See questionnaire in external materials tab.
The manual data entry method was used and sketch maps were produced manually (hand drawing). Data editing, imputation, validation and tabulation were done by a working group using CSPro.
Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation
Department of Agricultural Land Management and Statistics,
Address: Building No. 15, Nay Pyi Taw, Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Telephone: (+95) (0)67 410124, (+95) (0)9 49205067
See also http://www.mmsis.gov.mm/
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses