The coastal component of the Pacific Regional Oceanic and Coastal Fisheries Development Programme (PROCFish/C) conducted fieldwork in four locations around Fiji Islands in June and July 2007, and February 2009. This followed previous work funded by the MacArthur Foundation at locations in Fiji Islands in September to November 2002, and April to June 2003 under "The joint application of demography and ecology in evaluating the role of coastal fisheries resources in Pacific Island: the DemEcoFish project". Fiji Islands is one of 17 Pacific Island countries and territories being surveyed over a 5-6 year period by PROCFish/C or its associated programme CoFish (Pacific Regional Coastal Fisheries Development Programme).
The aim of the survey was to provide baseline information on the status of reef fisheries, and to help fill the massive information gap that hinders the effective management of reef fisheries. The survey covered three disciplines (finfish, invertebrate and socioeconomic) in each site, with programme scientists and several local counterparts from the Ministry of Fisheries and Forests (MFF) and the University of the South Pacific (USP). The fieldwork included capacity building for the local counterparts through instruction on survey methodologies in all three disciplines, including the collection of data and inputting the data into the programme's database.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope for the socio-economic survey covered:
1. Household characteristics
2. Fish consumption
3. Fishing (finfish) and marketing
4. Fishing habits per habitat
5. Invertebrate fishing and marketing
6. General information (Finfish, Invertebrates and Socio-economic)
The survey covered de jure household members. All household members responding to the "Finfishers" and "Invertebrate fishers" questionnaires must be aged 15 years and over and must be living in the household surveyed.
Producers and sponsors
Coastal Fisheries Programme
Pacific Community (SPC)
Reef Fisheries Observatory
Ministry of Fisheries and Forests
Government of Fiji Islands
University of the South Pacific
European Development Fund
At each site the extent of the community to be covered by the socioeconomic survey is determined by the size, nature and use of the fishing grounds. This selection process is highly dependent on local marine tenure rights. For example, in the case of community-owned fishing rights, a fishing community includes all villages that have access to a particular fishing ground. If the fisheries of all the villages concerned are comparable, one or two villages may be selected as representative samples, and consequently surveyed. Results will then be extrapolated to include all villages accessing the same fishing grounds under the same marine tenure system.
Most of the households included in the survey are chosen by simple random selection, as are the finfish and invertebrate fishers associated with any of these households. In addition, important participants in one or several particular fisheries may be selected for complementary surveying. Random sampling is used to provide an average and representative picture of the fishery situation in each community, including those who do not fish, those engaged in finfish and/or invertebrate fishing for subsistence, and those engaged in fishing activities on a small-scale artisanal basis. This assumption applies provided that selected communities are mostly traditional, relatively small (~100-300 households) and (from a socioeconomic point of view) largely homogenous. Similarly, gender and participation patterns (types of fishers by gender and fishery) revealed through the surveys are assumed to be representative of the entire community. Accordingly, harvest figures reported by male and female fishers participating in a community's various fisheries may be extrapolated to assess the impacts resulting from the entire community, sample size permitting (at least 25-30% of all households).
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Face-to-face paper [f2f]
A software programme (SEMCoS) has been developed in tandem with this manual to assist in automatically performing all necessary analysis and producing outputs for the data collected.
Also, data from all questionnaire forms are entered in the Reef Fisheries Integrated Database (RFID) system. All data entered are first verified and ‘cleaned’ prior to analysis. In the process of data entry, a comprehensive list of vernacular and corresponding scientific names for finfish and invertebrate species is developed. Database queries have been defined and established that allow automatic retrieval of the descriptive statistics used when summarising results at the site and national levels.
The team leader will follow up on data gaps identified after filling in the checklist and assign tasks for collecting the missing data accordingly. Most of this missing data should be collected during survey implementation in the respective community(ies).
TYPE OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The questionnaires are designed to allow a minimum dataset to be developed for each site, one that allows:
• the community’s dependency on marine resources to be characterised;
• assessment of the community’s engagement in and the possible impact of finfish and invertebrate harvesting; and
• comparison of socioeconomic information with data collected through PROCFish/C resource surveys.
The questionnaires are divided into 4 main areas:
- Household Survey => incorporating demographics, selected socioeconomic parameters and consumption patterns;
- Survey of fishers (finfish and invertebrate) => incorporating data by habitat and/or specific fishery;
- A general questionnaire targeting key informants => the purpose of which is to assess the overall characteristics of the site's fisheries;
- Finfish and invertebrate marketing questionnaires => that target agents, middlemen or buyers/sellers (shops and markets).
In addition to the questionnaires, two sets of size charts are provided to help assess the weight of fish and invertebrates caught and consumed. This is necessary as most village fishers do not use kilograms but local units of measure (heaps, plastic bags, strings, baskets, etc.), which are difficult to translate into kilogram weights.
Data collection is performed using a standard set of questionnaires developed by PROCFish/C’s socioeconomic component, which include a household survey (key socioeconomic parameters and consumption patterns), finfish fisheries survey, invertebrate fisheries survey, marketing of finfish survey, marketing of invertebrates survey, and general information questionnaire (for key informants). In addition, further observations and relevant details are noted and recorded in a non-standardised format.
Questionnaires are fully structured and closed, although open questions may be added on a case-to-case situation.
The Pacific Data Hub - Microdata Library, is responsible for improving the accessibility and availability of datasets and promoting new ways of using and reusing data for current and future use. These datasets have been modified in such a way that the possibility of identifying individuals or households is minimised.
Public use file, accessible to all.
"Pacific Community's Coastal Fisheries Programme, Fiji PROCFish/C - Socio-Economic survey 2007-2009 (SE-PROCFISH 2007), Version 01 of the public-use dataset (2009), provided by the Microdata Library. https://microdata.pacificdata.org/index.php/home"
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The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.