Survey on Costs and Returns of Cassava Production 2014
Agricultural Survey [ag/oth]
The 2014 Survey on Costs and Returns of Cassava Production is the second of the series. The first one was conducted in 1998 by the then Bureau of Agricultural Statistics.
The survey aimed to generate updated data on levels and structure of production costs and returns. Specifically, it was conducted to determine the indicators of profitability such as gross and net returns, returns above cash costs, net profit - cost ratio, etc.; usage of materials and labor inputs; and other related socio-economic variables including information on new production technologies.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the survey included the following:
SECTION A. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
This Section collects information on the geographic location where the sample farmer resides.
SECTION B. SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION
This Section aims to gather the demographic characteristics of the sample farmer.
SECTION C. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FARM
This Section collects basic information about the farm(s) operated by the sample farmer.
SECTION D. FARM INVESTMENTS (owned and used in the focus parcel)
This Section captures information on all investment items owned and used/utilized by the sample farmer in cassava production during the last completed harvest within April 2013 to March 2014.
SECTION E. MATERIAL INPUTS (used in the focus parcel)
This Section aims to gather information on the usage and costs of material inputs of the sample farmer in his cassava production during the last completed cropping period.
SECTION F. LABOR INPUTS (in focus parcel)
This Section aims to gather information pertaining to labor utilization in the production of cassava during the reference period. The sources of labor are operator, family, exchange labor (bayanihan) and hired labor. The latter may include permanent worker, contract labor or "pakyaw" system wherein the performance of multiple farming activities is contracted for a certain amount.
SECTION G. OTHER PRODUCTION COSTS (in focus parcel)
This Section gathers other items of production cost incurred on the focus parcel during the reference period. Payments may be cash or non-cash.
SECTION H. PRODUCTION AND DISPOSITION (in focus parcel)
This Section aims to gather information on the gross volume of cassava harvested in the focus parcel during the last completed cropping within April 2013 to March 2014 as well as the breakdown of disposition.
SECTION I. PRODUCTION RELATED INFORMATION (in focus parcel)
This Section aims to gather information on the problems affecting cassava production during the reference period.
SECTION J. MARKETING RELATED INFORMATION (in focus parcel)
This Section aims to gather information on the problems encountered in marketing their produce during the reference period.
SECTION K. ACCESS TO CREDIT (in focus parcel)
This Section aims to gather information regarding loans availed of by the sample farmer/operator for cassava production during the reference period.
SECTION L. FARMER’S PARTICIPATION IN CASSAVA PROGRAMS / PROJECTS
This Section aims to collect information on the farmer's participation in cassava program and projects during the reference period.
SECTION M. OTHER INFORMATION (for cassava only)
This Section aims to gather information relative to the effect of climate change in cassava production and organic farming practices. Also, the sample farmer/ operators membership in any farmer's organization and benefits received are solicited.
SECTION N. PLANS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This Section aims to compile the plans and recommendations of the sample farmer/operator for the improvement of his/her cassava production.
Agriculture, forestry, fisheries
Philippine Statistics Authority
Business and agricultural surveys
Philippine Statistics Authority
The survey covered farmers who harvested cassava within the reference period and knowledgeable on the details of cassava farming particularly on investments, material inputs, labor expenses incurred and disposition of produce.
Producers and sponsors
Philippine Statistics Authority
National Economic and Development Authority
Government of the Philippines
Department of Agriculture
Philippine Statistics Authority
All other expenses
A two-stage sampling design is employed with the barangay as the primary sampling unit and the sample farmer as the secondary sampling unit. Top fifteen (15) cassava producing barangays in the province will serve as sample barangays for the survey. These were identified by the Provincial Operations Center (POCs) using the available information on cassava production. The ranking is based on the barangay's total area harvested for cassava during 2013. During data collection, snowball approach will be applied to identify the sample farmers.
The total number of sample farmers per province is set at seventy-five (75) equally allocated to each sample barangays i.e., five (5) sample farmers for each sample barangay. During data collection, sample farmers will be located using snowball sampling. The names and addresses of cassava farmers residing in the barangay will be obtained from the office of the barangay captain or any other Key Informants (KIs) in the barangay. This will serve as the data collector's starting point in searching for potential sample farmers.
A set of screening questions will be applied to confirm if those listed actually harvested cassava during the reference period and meet the other criteria for enumeration. Whether the interviewed farmer is qualified or not, he/she will be asked to identify other cassava farmers in the barangay to be added in the initial list. The search continues, and the farmer who meets the criteria specified in the screening questions qualifies as sample for the survey and will be interviewed using the 2014 SCR-Cassava questionnaire. If the interview is successfully carried out (meaning, all the needed information has been supplied), the enumerator will write the household number, full name and residential address of the sample farmer in the List of Sample Farmers. Again, the enumerator can select any farmer from the list as the next potential sample for the survey. The process continues until the required number of samples in the barangay is covered.
Response rate of 100 percent
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Face-to-face paper [f2f]
Editing and coding of data were done at the provincial offices upon submission of the accomplished questionnaires by the CDCs. These activities were undertaken to ensure the quality of data that were collected.
A five (5) day training/workshop on data processing was conducted to facilitate the generation of survey results. It was attended by the Provincial Processing Officers (PPOs) or staff in-charge of other crops and selected staff of the Agricultural Accounts and Statistical Indicators Division (AASID).
The training/workshop covered data encoding, data review, cleaning and updating of flat files using MS Excel program developed by AASID. During the training/workshop, completeness check, consistency checks and accuracy checks were done to ensure quality of data. The output of the data review and cleaning was the final set of raw data file which was used for the generation of data tables. These data tables were validated and compared with the results of the 1998 Costs and Returns of Cassava Production and results of other relevant surveys.
The document on Editing Guidelines is provided as a Related Material.
Series of reviews were done to assess the quality of the data in terms of reliability and acceptability. A comparison with the results of past surveys on input usage, labor utilization, production cost and return structure of cassava was made.
The PSA and its field personnel shall hold all data supplied by the establishments/households/individuals in confidence. The information obtained from each respondent of the census/survey or individual/establishment in administrative records shall be for statistical purposes only and not for taxation, regulation nor investigation purposes. The data shall be processed with others of the same category and shall be disseminated in summary forms or statistical tables so as not to reveal the identity of any respondent.
Confidentiality of primary data collected from respondents/administrative records systems is guaranteed by Section 26 of the Republic Act No. 10625 (Philippine Statistics Act of 2013). Penalties shall be enforced to acts of breach of confidential information pursuant to Section 27 of the said Act.
Authorization to use this data is granted only to the client or data user and persons within its organization, if applicable. Under no circumstances shall the client reproduce, distribute, sell or lend the entire data or parts thereof to any other data user apart from himself or that of authorized employees in his organization. The PSA shall hold the data user fully responsible for safeguarding the data from any unauthorized access or use.
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the PSA.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified in the dataset.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately be reported to the PSA.
Philippine Statistics Authority, Costs and Returns of Cassava Production 2014, Version 3 of the public use dataset, provided by the PSA Data Archive. www.psa.gov.ph/psada
Disclaimer and copyrights
The data users/researchers acknowledge that the PSA and the agency funding the study bear no liabilities and responsibilities for any particular, indirect, or consequential damages or any damages, whatsoever resulting from loss of use, or of data in connection with the use or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.