Costs and Returns Survey of Garlic Production 2006
Agricultural Survey [ag/oth]
This is the third in the series of surveys on the costs and returns of garlic production which is being implemented by the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS). This survey was conducted in 2006 under the auspices of the Diversified Farm Income and Market Development Project (DFIMDP) of the Department of Agriculture (DA). The BAS forerunner, Bureau of Agricultural Economics (BAEcon), had also conducted Costs and Returns Surveys (CRS). The BAS ran its first CRS for garlic in 1997 under the project "Strengthening of Benchmark Data for Priority Crops Under the Key Commercial Crops Development Program (KCCDP) with financial support provided by the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR). The survey covered the country's top two garlic producing provinces, Ilocos Norte and Mindoro Occidental. The second survey was implemented in 2002 under the project Ginintuang Masaganang Ani-High Value Commercial Crops Program (GMA-HVCCP) of the Department of Agriculture. Provinces surveyed were Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija and Mindoro Occidental.
The profitability of garlic is one of the primary concerns among planners and policy makers in setting-up goals and strategies as they prepare the sector for global competition. Likewise, this is the concern of agribusiness players who are interested to venture in garlic farming. Thus, the need to generate updated information on the costs and returns of producing garlic which can guide concerned stakeholders in their decision making.
Information on costs and returns in garlic production is a critical input for the improvement of the supply/volume chain and enhancing the food security situation in the country.
The survey aimed to generate updated data on levels and structure of production costs and returns. Specifically, it was conducted to determine the indicators of profitability such as gross and net returns, returns above cash costs, net profit - cost ratio, etc.; average use of materials and labor inputs; and other related socio-economic variables including information on new production technologies.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The survey focused on generating costs and returns structure of garlic production. The scope of the survey included the following:
Characteristics of the farmers/ operators such as age, sex, main occupation, experience in garlic production and highest educational attainment.
Farm characteristics such as total farm area, number of parcels operated by the farmer, area planted and harvested to garlic and other crops, number of cropping's per year, variety of garlic planted, tenurial status, month of planting and harvesting garlic.
Farm investments such as inventory of farm investments used, year and cost of acquisition, repairs and improvement cost and estimated life and usage in the focus garlic farm.
Material inputs such as usage and cost of planting materials, fertilizers, mulching materials, insecticides, herbicides/weedicides, fungicides and other chemicals.
Labor inputs such as labor utilization (in terms of man days) and labor cost by type of farming activity, by source of labor and by sex and food cost incurred.
Other production costs such as cash and non-cash payments for land tax, land lease/rental, rental value of owned land, rentals of machine, animals and tools, fuel and oil, transport costs of inputs, irrigation fee, electricity, interest payment on crop loans, storage cost and other production costs.
Production and disposition such as volume of garlic production and its disposition in terms of sold, harvesters' share, threshers' share, other laborers' share, landowners' share, lease/rental, for home consumption, given away, used for seeds, wastage and other purposes.
Buyer information such as major buyer of garlic and the percentage of garlic sold to each buyer and the perceived right price of garlic.
Problems encountered such as problems affecting production and marketing of garlic.
Access to credit such as amount and source of crop loan, interest rate per annum and percentage of loan used in garlic production.
Other information such as membership in garlic-related association and benefits derived, access to extension services, future plans of garlic farmers and their recommendations to improve garlic production
The survey covered all garlic farms with harvest during the last completed cropping in 2006 as the reference period.
Producers and sponsors
Bureau of Agricultural Statistics
Department of Agriculture
Department of Agriculture
National Statistical Coordination Board
The domain of the study was the province, with the last completed production cycle in 2006 as reference period. The lists of garlic producing barangays by province prepared by the concerned BAS Provincial Operations Centers (POCs) served as the sampling frame for this study. The lists contained data on the area devoted to garlic production and number of garlic farmers by barangay as of 2006. These data were obtained from the Municipal Agriculturist Offices, Agricultural Technicians, barangay officials and other key informants in the barangay and updated results of the Barangay Screening Survey (BSS).
A two-stage sampling design was employed with the barangays as the primary sampling unit, and the garlic farmers as the secondary and ultimate sampling unit. The barangays were drawn using systematic sampling from an ordered list of barangays with at least five (5) garlic farmers. Systematic sampling was used in the selection of sample barangays so that both large and small barangays in terms of area would be represented in the sample. For Nueva Ecija, all garlic producing barangays were taken as samples. Sample farmers were identified using snowball approach during data collection. During the search for sample operators, a set of screening questions was applied to see to it that the samples satisfied the following criteria:
1) must be engaged in garlic farming, and
2) must have harvested garlic in 2006.
The sample size was 100 garlic farmers each in Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur, equally allocated to 20 sample barangays. In Nueva Ecija, the sample size was 80 garlic farmers.
Response rate of 100 percent
No information provided
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Face-to-face paper [f2f]
Manual editing was initially done at the Provincial Operations Center during and after data collection using the CRS editing guidelines prepared by the Central Office. The edited questionnaires were again checked at the Central Office. Coding and encoding were likewise done at the Central Office.
The document on Editing Guidelines is provided in the technical documents.
Series of reviews were done to assess the quality of the data in terms of reliability and acceptability. A comparison with the results of past surveys on input usage, labor utilization, production cost and return structure of garlic was made.
Chief, Agricultural Accounts and Statistical Indicators Division
The Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) strictly observes the confidentiality of data. As stated in the BAS' survey questionnaires and the forms relevant to the conduct of any statistical inquiry, data provided by the respondents shall be used solely for statistical purposes.
The datasets of this study are categorized under licensed files. Access to licensed datasets is through request and is only granted to Data Users/Researchers with a legally registered sponsoring agency (university, company, research centre, national or international organization, etc.).
The Data Users/Researchers must agree to comply with the following:
1. Fill up a Data Access Agreement that will be provided.
2. Copies of the restricted data or any data created on the basis of the original data will not be copied or made available to anyone other than those mentioned in this Data Access Agreement, unless formally authorized by the BAS.
3. The data will only be processed for the stated statistical purpose in the agreement and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations. Data will not in any way be used for any administrative, proprietary or law enforcement purposes.
4. The dataset must not be made to match with other datasets.
5. The Data Users/Researchers shall not attempt to identify any individual person, family, business, enterprise or organization. If such a unique disclosure is made inadvertently, no use will be made as to the identity of any person or establishment discovered. The identification will not be revealed to any other person not included in the Data Access Agreement.
6. The Data Users/Researchers must observe security measures to prevent unauthorized access to licensed microdata acquired from the BAS. The microdata must be destroyed upon the completion of their research. Destruction of the microdata will be confirmed in writing by the Data Users/Researchers to the BAS.
7. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the BAS/BAS Electronic Archiving and Network Services (BEANS) will cite the source of data in accordance with the citation requirement provided with the dataset.
8. If there are any changes or additional requirements in the orginal request, the Data User/Researcher must apply for another request.
9. Breaches of the Data Access Agreement will be taken seriously and the BAS will take action against those responsible for the lapses if wilful or accidental. Failure to comply with the directions of the BAS will be deemed to be a major breach of the agreement and may involve recourse to legal proceedings. The BAS will maintain and share with partner data archives a record of those individuals and organizations which are responsible for breaching the terms of the Data Access Agreement and will impose sanctions on release of future data to these parties.
As specified in the agreement under access conditions, users are required to cite the source of data in accordance with the citation requirement provided with the dataset. The citation requirement for this study is as follows:
"Bureau of Agricultural Statistics, Costs and Returns Survey of Garlic Production, Version 3.0 of the licensed dataset 2006, provided by the BAS Electronic Archiving and Network Services. http://beans.bas.gov.ph"
Disclaimer and copyrights
The data users/researchers acknowledge that the BAS and the agency funding the study bear no liabilities and responsibilities for any particular, indirect, or consequential damages or any damages, whatsoever resulting from loss of use, or of data in connection with the use or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.