This is the third in the series of surveys on the costs and returns of onion production implemented by the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS). The survey was conducted in 2006 under the auspices of the Diversified Farm Income and Market Development Project (DFIMDP) of the Department of Agriculture (DA). The BAS forerunner, Bureau of Agricultural Economics (BAEcon), had also conducted Costs and Returns Surveys (CRS). The BAS ran its first CRS for onion in 1997 under the project "Strengthening of Benchmark Data for Priority Crops Under the Key Commercial Crops Development Program (KCCDP) with financial support from the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR). The survey covered the country's top three (3) onion producing provinces, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan and Nueva Ecija. The second survey was implemented in 2002 under the project Ginintuang Masaganang Ani-High Value Commercial Crops Program (GMA-HVCCP) of the Department of Agriculture. Provinces surveyed were Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan and Nueva Ecija.
Information on onion farming will help provide directions to agricultural entrpreneurs and investors. It also serves the statistical requirements of onion growers and policy makers for planning and decision making regarding onion production and marketing.
The survey aimed at generating updated data on levels and structure of production costs and returns. Specifically, it was conducted to detemine the indicators of profitability such as gross and net returns, returns above cash costs, net profit - cost ratio, etc.; usage of materials and labor inputs; and other related socio-economic variables including information on new production technologies.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The survey focused on generating costs and returns structure of onion production. The scope of the survey included the following:
- Characteristics of the farmers/operators such as age, sex, main occupation, experience in onion production and highest educational attainment.
- Farm characteristics such as total farm area, number of parcels operated by the farmer, area planted and harvested to onion and other crops, number of cropping's per year, variety of onion planted, tenurial status, method of planting, month of planting and harvesting onion.
- Farm investments such as inventory of farm investments used, year and cost of acquisition, repairs and improvement cost and estimated life and usage in the focus onion farm.
- Material inputs such as quantity and cost of planting materials, fertilizers, mulching materials, insecticides, herbicides/weedicides, fungicides and other chemicals.
- Labor inputs such as labor utilization (in terms of man days) and labor cost by type of farming activity, by source of labor and by sex and food cost incurred.
- Other production costs such as cash and non-cash payments for land tax, land lease/rental, rental value of owned land, rentals of machine, animals and tools, fuel and oil, transport costs of inputs, irrigation fee, electricity, interest payment on crop loans, storage cost and other production costs.
- Production and disposition such as volume of onion production and its disposition in terms of sold, harvesters' share, threshers' share, other laborers' share, landowners' share, lease rental, for home consumption, given away, used for seeds, wastage and other purposes.
- Buyer information such as major buyer of onion and the percentage of onion sold to each buyer and the perceived right price of onion.
- Problems encountered such as problems affecting production and marketing of onion.
- Access to credit such as amount and source of crop loan, interest rate per annum and percentage of loan used in onion production.
- Other information such as membership in onion-related association and benefits derived, access to extension services, future plans of onion farmers and their recommendations to improve onion industry.
The survey covered the top three (3) onion producing provinces namely: Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan and Nueva Ecija.
The survey covered all onion farms with harvests during the last completed cropping in 2006 as the reference period.
Producers and sponsors
Bureau of Agricultural Statistics
Department of Agriculture
Department of Agriculture
National Statistical Coordination Board
The domain of the study was the province, with the last completed production cycle in 2006 as reference period. The lists of onion producing barangays by province prepared by the concerned BAS Provincial Operations Centers (POCs) served as the sampling frame for this study. The lists contained data on area devoted to onion production and number of onion farmers as of 2006. These data were obtained from the Municipal Agriculturist Offices, Agricultural Technicians, barangay officials and other key informants in the barangays and updated results of the Barangay Screening Survey (BSS).
A two-stage sampling design was employed with the barangay as the primary sampling unit and the onion farmer as the secondary and ultimate sampling unit. The barangays were drawn using systematic sampling from an ordered list of barangays with at least five onion farmers. Systematic sampling was used so that both large and small barangays in the province in terms of onion production would be represented in the sample. On the other hand, sample operators were identified using snowball approach during data collection. During the search for sample operators, a set of screening questions was applied to see to it that the samples satisfy the following criteria: 1) must be engaged in onion production, and 2) must have harvested onion in 2006.
The total sample size was 100 onion growers per province and this was equally allocated to 20 sample barangays. The survey resulted in the following distribution of sample farmers by province:
1. Ilocos Norte (100)
2. Pangasinan (100)
3. Nueva Ecija (100)
Response rate of 100 percent
No information provided
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Face-to-face paper [f2f]
Manual editing was initially done at the Provincial Operations Center during and after data collection using the CRS editing guidelines prepared by the Central Office. The edited questionnaires were again checked at the Central Office. Coding and encoding were likewise done at the Central Office.
The document on Editing Guidelines is provided in the technical documents.
Series of reviews were done to assess the quality of the data in terms of reliability and acceptability. A comparison with the results of past surveys on input usage, labor utilization, production cost and return structure of onion was made.
Chief, Agricultural Accounts and Statistical Indicators Division
Bureau of Agricultural Statistics
Chief, Information and Communications Technology Division
Bureau of Agricultural Statistics
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The datasets of this study are categorized under licensed files. Access to licensed datasets is through request and is only granted to Data Users/Researchers with a legally registered sponsoring agency (university, company, research centre, national or international organization, etc.).
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As specified in the agreement under access conditions, users are required to cite the source of data in accordance with the citation requirement provided with the dataset. The citation requirement for this study is as follows:
"Bureau of Agricultural Statistics, Costs and Returns Survey of Onion Production, Version 3.0 of the licensed dataset 2006, provided by the BAS Electronic Archiving and Network Services. http://beans.bas.gov.ph"
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