This study is the 15th in the series of Marketing Costs Structure Studies conducted by the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS). This particular study covered the provinces of Pangasinan, Bulacan, Capiz and Iloilo as supply areas of milkfish. It also covered Baguio City, Isabela, Pampanga, Aklan, and Metro Manila as demand areas.
The viability of any agricultural endeavor is one of the main concerns of planners and policy makers in the agricultural and fishery sector. In support of this concern, goals and strategies are geared towards increasing productivity and profitability. Thus, there is a need for adequate and relevant marketing information which would include marketing structure, cost and margins, prices and other marketing-related information.
The Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) recognizes the need for such marketing information and has incorporated the generation of such in its data system. While data on prices has been regularly-generated, the other marketing information are collected periodically. These are limited to selected types of crop, livestock and fishery commodities.
The main objective of the study is to determine the marketing structure of milkfish. Specifically, it aims to:
1) Identify the key players in the milkfish industry,
2) Determine the components of marketing costs of milkfish by type of marketing participants,
3) Determine the marketing practices of milkfish operators and traders,
4) Determine the flow of commodities and channels of distribution; and
5) Compare marketing costs across trading centers.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The study covered four (4) major milkfish supply areas and five (5) demand areas. From the supply areas, milkfish farm operators who have undertaken pre-marketing activities prior to the marketing of milkfish were included. Pre-marketing activities may include hauling, sorting/classifying, weighing, packing, chilling, rechilling, loading, unloading, selling, etc. Each farm operator were asked on their production and marketing activities as well as on the costs of milkfish distribution.
In the demand areas, the traders identified by milkfish operators as buyers of milkfish were interviewed and were asked to whom and where they sell the milkfish they procured so that the interviewee has the information for the next traders to be interviewed or the destination of the commodity. Each of the traders were asked on their procurement and distribution practices. The costs of labor, materials, transportation and other marketing related expenses in procuring and distributing their milkfish products were also determined.
All marketing costs of milkfish farm operators and traders.
Producers and sponsors
Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS)
Department of Agriculture (DA)
Bureau of Agricultural Statistics
The study covered four (4) major milkfish supply areas and five (5) demand areas. For supply areas, the provinces covered were Pangasinan, Bulacan, Capiz and Iloilo, while demand areas included Baguio City, Isabela, Pampanga, Aklan, and Metro Manila. Supply provinces were chosen based on their significant contribution to the total milkfish production in the country. On the average, these provinces accounted for 44% of the country's milkfish production during the last five (5) years. Demand provinces, however, were identified as the distribution and consumption areas of milkfish produced from the supply provinces. These provinces were identified during the interview phase in the supply areas.
The selection of sample milkfish farm operators and traders was guided by the following procedures:
a) Milkfish Farm Operators: From the identified milkfish farm operators taken from the Costs and Returns Survey (CRS), the research team purposively selected 20 sample farm operators who have undertaken pre-marketing activities prior to the marketing of milkfish. These pre-marketing activities include hauling, sorting, chilling, packing, etc. that were done by the operator before selling the commodity. Selection of the 20 sample farm operators was done either by equally distributing the samples among the sample producing barangays or by distributing the samples among the top producing barangays only.
However, if the sample respondents from the CRS have not identified milkfish farm operators who had undertaken pre-marketing activities, the 20 sample farm operators were chosen from the top two (2) producing barangays within the top two (2) producing municipalities identified by the traders in each province. Five (5) respondents were chosen in each barangay or a total of 20 respondents.
b) Traders: Adopting the snowball sampling techniques, the team interviewed traders identified by sample farm operators as buyers of milkfish. The traders interviewed were asked to whom and where they sell the milkfish they procured so that the interviewee has the information for the next traders to be interviewed or the destination of the commodity. This approach accumulates the data gathered from one trader respondent to other respondents at different levels of commodity marketing system.
A minimum of three (3) and maximum of five (5) respondents per type of marketing participants were interviewed per trading site.
For additional information relevant to the study, the research team also interviewed other key players knowledgeable to the marketing structure of milkfish. This is an addition to the information taken from the previous interview.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Face-to-face paper [f2f]
Data editing was done at various stages:
a) Right after data collection to check the completeness and consistencies of entries;
b) During data processing
c) After the consolidation and generation of output tables
The data were processed manually by four (4) staff at the Central Office. The processors were tasked to edit and process all the entries on the questionnaires for the supply and demand areas assigned to them.
Each processor was provided with two separate tabulation worksheets, one for the operators and the other for traders. These tabulation worksheets were designed according to the contents of the questionnaires which include the profile or socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, the production and marketing practices in case of the operators, marketing practices of the traders and the components of marketing costs such as labor, transportation, supplies and materials and other operating expenses.
Frequency counts and percentages were determined for the profile and marketing procatices of the respondents. For marketing costs, average cost per kilogram for each item, per activity and per type of marketing participants were estimated for each supply and demand area.
After all the data were processed, these were consolidated and entered to the output tables in Microsoft Excel formats.
Since data processing was done manually without using any software, microdata are not available for public access.
The data presented in the output tables were reviewed and compared across areas covered by the study. Data analysis and report preparation were done accordingly.
Bureau of Agricultural Statistics
The Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) strictly observes the confidentiality of data. As stated in the BAS' survey questionnaires and the forms relevant to the conduct of any statistical inquiry, data provided by the respondents shall be used solely for statistical purposes.
The datasets of this study are categorized under licensed files. Access to licensed datasets is through request and is only granted to Data Users/Researchers with a legally registered sponsoring agency (university, company, research centre, national or international organization, etc.).
The Data Users/Researchers must agree to comply with the following:
1. Fill up a Data Access Agreement that will be provided.
2. Copies of the restricted data or any data created on the basis of the original data will not be copied or made available to anyone other than those mentioned in this Data Access Agreement, unless formally authorized by the BAS.
3. The data will only be processed for the stated statistical purpose in the agreement and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations. Data will not in any way be used for any administrative, proprietary or law enforcement purposes.
4. The dataset must not be made to match with other datasets.
5. The Data Users/Researchers shall not attempt to identify any individual person, family, business, enterprise or organization. If such a unique disclosure is made inadvertently, no use will be made as to the identity of any person or establishment discovered. The identification will not be revealed to any other person not included in the Data Access Agreement.
6. The Data Users/Researchers must observe security measures to prevent unauthorized access to licensed microdata acquired from the BAS. The microdata must be destroyed upon the completion of their research. Destruction of the microdata will be confirmed in writing by the Data Users/Researchers to the BAS.
7. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the BAS/BAS Electronic Archiving and Network Services (BEANS) will cite the source of data in accordance with the citation requirement provided with the dataset.
8. If there are any changes or additional requirements in the orginal request, the Data User/Researcher must apply for another request.
9. Breaches of the Data Access Agreement will be taken seriously and the BAS will take action against those responsible for the lapses if wilful or accidental. Failure to comply with the directions of the BAS will be deemed to be a major breach of the agreement and may involve recourse to legal proceedings. The BAS will maintain and share with partner data archives a record of those individuals and organizations which are responsible for breaching the terms of the Data Access Agreement and will impose sanctions on release of future data to these parties.
As specified in the agreement under access conditions, users are required to cite the source of data in accordance with the citation requirement provided with the dataset. The citation requirement for this study is as follows:
"Bureau of Agricultural Statistics, Study on Marketing Structure of Milkfish (MSS-Milkfish 2006), Version 2.0, provided by the BAS Electronic Archiving and Network Services, http://beans.bas.gov.ph"
Disclaimer and copyrights
The data users/researchers acknowledge that the BAS and the agency funding the study bear no liabilities and responsibilities for any particular, indirect, or consequential damages or any damages, whatsoever resulting from loss of use, or of data in connection with the use or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.