Land Husbandry, Water Harvesting and Hillside Irrigation Project Impact Evaluation 2014
Agricultural Survey [ag/oth]
This is the third wave of the impact evaluation of the Land Husbandry, Water Harvesting, and Hillside Irrigation (LWH) Project, conducted between May and August 2012.
Agriculture is a major engine of the Rwandan economy and remains a priority sector in the Government of Rwanda's goals of reducing poverty and achieving food security through commercialized agriculture. Sustainable improvement to agricultural productivity is the only way to achieve this target, calling for investments in participatory land management, water harvesting and intensified irrigation of the hillsides. The Land Husbandry, Water Harvesting and Hillside Irrigation (LWH) project has been working to meet these goals.
Evaluating the overall impact of LWH is important to allow Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MINAGRIs) to effectively plan for its future activities. LWH covers a relatively small area of 30,250 ha, eventually affecting approximately 20 watersheds. From the perspective of MINAGRI, LWH can be seen as a pilot program for comprehensive agricultural overhaul. LWH includes major infrastructure investments such as hillside terracing, irrigation dams, and post-harvest storage. The project aims to operationalize MINAGRIs strategy to encourage mono cropping of cash crops, as opposed to the traditional system of inter-cropping for household consumption.
LWH has been rolled out in three phases: implementation in the fourth Phase. Phase 1A sites began in 2010, in the three Phase 1B sites in 2012, and in the Phase 1C sites in late 2013.
There have been five surveys for this project including baselines and four follow-ups. There were two sample groups: 1B and 1C. For the 1B sample group, the baseline was conducted in 2012, and follow-up surveys in 2013, 2014, and 2016. For the 1C sample, the baseline was implemented in 2014, and a follow-up in 2016. The data file documented here is from the third follow-up survey.
The datasets from all the surveys till now are all published in the Microdata Library of the World Bank with the following study IDs:
1) The baseline, the first and the second follow-up surveys: RWA_2012-2016_LWHIE-BL-F2_v01_M
2) The third follow-up survey: RWA_2014_LWHIE-F3_v01_M
3) The fourth follow-up survey: RWA_2016_LWHIE-F4_v01_M
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the study includes:
- Access to various forms of extension services
- Adoption of agricultural technologies and improved farming methods
- Use of irrigation
- Crop cultivation decisions
- Total harvests
- Expenditure on inputs
- Total sales
- Non-farm income
- Food consumption and security
- Usage of services from formal financial institutions
Agriculture & Rural Development
Food (production, crisis)
Land (policy, resource management)
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank
The World Bank
The World Bank
Global Agriculture Food Security Program
Funded the study
There were two baseline surveys, one for the 1B sample group and another for the 1C sample group.
A baseline survey was implemented in three 1B LWH project sites. Rwamagana-34, Rwamagana-35 and Kayonza-4, and three control sites were selected by pairwise-matching. The sample was designed to meet three criteria: geographic representation at the site-level, inclusion of multiple members of farmer groups within sites, and sufficient size to power tests of variations in treatment within the Phase 1B sites.
To meet these criteria, sampling was done through a two-stage process. In the first stage, researchers randomly sampled "seed" households, stratified by village. The total number of "seed" households varied by treatment status. For treatment sites, the number of "seeds" depended on the estimated number of Self-help Group (SHG), calculated based on the site population and the typical size of SHGs, which is 20 households. For control sites, the number of "seeds" was set at 25, which provided sufficient power for the measurement of overall project impact.
In the second stage, researchers asked each "seed" farmer to list four "plot neighbours", i.e. people who have contiguous or near-contiguous plots to his own. These four people were added to the survey sample, and the five respondents together constitute a synthetic SHG. Since the SHGs are formed based on proximity of agricultural land, households in synthetic SHGs are likely to be assigned into a single farmer group. Comparison sites were elected using pair-wise matching, from a list of sites considered eligible to receive LWH but that will not receive the project.
A baseline survey was implemented in four 1C LWH project sites. The LWH Project works at a site level (the valley and surrounding hills chosen for the intervention). The LWH project implemented different activities at different areas within the site: Command Area, Command Area Catchment, and Water Catchment areas. Because Phase 1C site Gicumbi was only receiving land husbandry interventions, the sample was taken only from the Water Catchment area of the site. At Muyanza site, the full portfolio of LWH interventions to be implemented, as reflected in the sampling across the different areas. Comparison sites were selected using pair-wise matching, from a list of sites considered eligible for the LWH project but not to receive the project. Extensive data was recorded for the sites considered eligible for the project, including data on geography, weather and land use patterns, making the identification of such matching sites possible.
No information. Refer to dataset provided on World Bank Data
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
First and second data entries were compared, and all discrepancies corrected through manual checks of the hard-copy questionnaires. In some cases, the field team was sent back to the field for verification. All data was collected electronically on tablet computers using Open Data Kit/SurveyCTO.
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Florence Kondylis, Maria Jones, Saahil Karpe, World Bank. Rwanda Land Husbandry, Water Harvesting and Hillside Irrigation Project Impact Evaluation 2014, Third Follow-up Survey (LWHIE-F3 2014), Ref. RWA_2014_LWHIE-F3_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
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