Four Living Standards Measurement Study surveys had been conducted in Tajikistan. The first was conducted in 1999, the second was conducted in 2003. The 2007 is the third one, and 2009 is the fourth one. The 2007 Tajikistan LSS and the 2009 LSS form a panel survey.
The purpose of the Tajikistan LSS surveys has been to provide quantitative data at the individual, household and community level that will facilitate purposeful policy design on issues of welfare and living standards of the population of the Republic of Tajikistan. Since 2007, the studies have been done in collaboration with World Bank and UNICEF and implementation by Tajik National Committee for Statistics. The 2007 LSS survey is based on the 2003 LSS and 2005 MICS survey with additional questions and modules
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
1. Household Roster: This module contains the roster of individuals living in the household, their relationship to the household, gender, year of birth, age, and marital status. It also allows the identification of spouses, and parents of household members.
2. Migration: This module collects information on three types of migration.
-Part A collects information on internal migration, including the last two moves within the country.
-Part B collects information on international migration for those household members currently residing in the household.
-Part C collects information on individuals who would be members of the household if they were currently residing in the household.
3. Education: The education module collects information in two parts.
-Part A collects information on children under 6 years of age who are attending (or not) preschool.
-Part B collects information on the education level for all respondents 6 years old or older.
4. Health: The health module
-Part A collects information general health status
-Part B Utilization of outpatient health care
-Part C Hospitalization
-Part D Access to health care
-Part E HIV/AIDS awareness
5. Labour Market: This module includes a series of questions designed to help determine the reasons why respondents chose the informal sector over the formal sector.
-Part A The labour market module collects information on the participation in the labour market during the past 14 days
-Part B Jobs worked in the last 14 days
-Part C Main and secondary jobs worked in the last 14 days
-Part D Activities over the last 12 months
6. Financial Services: Information is collected on the use of formal and informal institutions for banking and loan services.
7. Dwelling, Utilities, and Durable Goods: Standard information on the description of the dwelling and use of utilities is collected. An expanded section on water and sanitation was included. Ownership and current value of durable goods was also collected.
8. Transfers and Social Assistance
-Part A collects information on transfers received from other households or institutions.
-Part B collects information on transfers made to other households or institutions.
-Part C collects information on social assistance received by members of the household.
9. Subjective Poverty and Food Security:
-Part A This module collects information on food security and information needed to generate the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS).
-Part B collects information on who makes decisions within the household regarding household chores and activities such as purchases, marriage, school attendance, etc.
10. Consumption and expenditures on Food for the Last 7 Days: This module asks what food items were consumed in the last 7 days, and the method used to acquire the items, purchase, home production, receipt as a gift, received as humanitarian aid, received as part of salary, or taken from stocks. Information is also collected on the prices of purchased goods.
11. Expenditures on Non-Food Items:
-Part A collects information on non-food items purchased during the past 30 days
-Part B collects information on non-food items purchased during the past 6 months
-Part C collects information on non-food items purchased during the last 12 months
12. Agriculture Household This module collects information on agricultural holdings of the household including land used, machinery owned, crops grown, inputs used, livestock owned, and livestock by-product
13. Other Income: This module collects information on income from sources such as rental income, revenue from sale of assets, and other income.
14. Subjective Beliefs:
-Part A The head of household is asked his opinion about different scenarios regarding how his or her life might be in the future. ---Part B the head of household is asked a series of
vignettes and is then asked to rank the vignette on a scale from 1 to 6.
15. Immunization and anthropometrics: The immunization records for children 0 to 6 years old is collected.
FEMALE QUESTIONNAIRE (Females 15 through 49)
1. Time Use: Time spent on various household chores during the past 7 days.
2. Fertility: Age at first period, age at first marriage, number of children born (alive or still born), and a fertility history.
3. Information on last child born: Pre-natal care, medical assistance at birth, breastfeeding, cessation of breastfeeding, number of miscarriages and still births, if the woman has had an induced abortion, and most
important source of contraception information.
1. Demographic Community Demographics of the community.
2. Infrastructure Community General characteristics of the community in terms of local infrastructure.
3. Economy Community Information on the major economic activities in the community.
4. Education Community The availability of services within the education sector.
5. Health Community Information about the health services and garbage disposal.
6. Agriculture Community General information on agriculture in the community.
7. Institutions Community Presence of public institutions in the community.
8. Prices Community Prices of goods found in the food consumption module in the household questionnaire and some additional prices.
Migration & Remittances
Access to Finance
Population & Reproductive Health
Producers and sponsors
Tajik National Committee for Statistics
United Nations Children's Fund
A detailed description of the sampling methodology is available in appendix to the document "Basic Information Document".
The Tajikistan LSS sample was designed to allow reliable estimation of poverty and most variables for a variety of other living standard indicators at the various domains of interest based on a representative probability sample on the level of:
• Tajikistan as a whole
• Total urban and total rural areas
• The five main administrative regions (oblasts) of the country: Dushanbe, Rayons of Republican Subordination (RRS), Sogd, Khatlon, and Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO)
The last census was conducted in 2000 and covered all five main administrative regions (oblasts) of the country (Dushanbe, RRS, Sogd, Khatlon, and GBAO). Each oblast was further subdivided into smaller areas called census section, instructor's sector and enumeration sector (ES). Each ES is either totally urban or rural. The list of ESs has census information on the population of each ES, and the ES lists were grouped by oblast.
In 2005, UNICEF implemented a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MIC-05) in Tajikistan during which an electronic database of the ES information was created. Information in this database included: oblast, rayon, jamoat, settlement type, city/village, ES code, and population. Information from this database was used in the sample design of the TLSS07.
The total number of clusters for the Tajikistan LSS 2007 was established as 270 and total number of households per cluster was established as 18, resulting in a sample size of 4,860. The sample size was determined by considering:
• The reliability of the survey estimates on both regional and national level
• Quality of the data collected for the survey
• Cost in time for the data collection
• An oversample in 7 rayons in Khatlon
Refer to World Bank Data
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Entry and Cleaning
The data entry program was designed using CSPro, a data entry package developed by the US Census Bureau. This software allows programs to be developed to perform three types of data checks: (a) range checks; (b) intra-record checks to verify inconsistencies pertinent to the particular module of the questionnaire; and (c) inter-record checks to determine inconsistencies between the different modules of the questionnaire.
The data from the First Round were key entered at the Goskomstat headquarters in Dushanbe starting 4 October 2007 through 25 November 2007. The Second Round and Sughd data were key entered from 26 November 2007 through 12 December 2007. All of the data were double entered with both the First Round, Second Round and Sughd re-collection double entry being completed by 22 January 2008.
The data cleaning process began in February 2008 and was completed at the end of May 2008.
How to Use the Data:
There are three separate data bases with the data from the TLSS07. The data from each data collection is maintained separately. The data sets have similar names in each of the three separate data collections. First Round data sets have names in the form of "r1mnp" where "n" is the number of the module, and "p" is the part of the module (if any). Data from the Subjective Poverty module would be stored as "r1m9" and data from the Migration module, Part C Family Members Living Away from the Household would be stored as "r1m2c". Second Round data set names have a similar form "r2mnp". Data sets from the Sughd collection replace the "m" of the First Round with "sm", such as sm12a1.
The variable names have a similar format. Each variable name includes the module in which the variable is found and the question number. For example, question 10 in Module 4 Health, Part B Utilization of Outpatient Health Care is "m4b_q10". The variable names in all three of the data collections have the same format.
In addition to the individual roster files for each data base, there is also one roster file for all three data bases, rosterall. This roster file contains the information on all of the households and household members who are included in the data. There is a variable (source) indicating if the household/member is: (a) in Round 1 only; (b) in Round 2 only; (c) in Round 1 and Round 2; or (d) in the Sughd data. It is important to pay attention to this variable as the recall periods for the Subjective Poverty and Food Security Module (9A) is the last 4 weeks in the First Round, but changed to the last 2 weeks in the Second Round and the Sughd collection. In addition, the order of the question in the Expenditure On Food In The Last 7 Days, Module 10, changed
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- The users shall not take any action with the purpose of identifying any individual entity (i.e. person, household, enterprise, etc.) in the micro dataset(s). If such a disclosure is made inadvertently, no use will be made of the information, and it will be reported immediately to FAO;
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Use of the dataset must be acknowledged by including a citation which would include:
- Identification of the Primary Investigator
- Title of the survey (including the year of implementation)
- Survey reference number
- Source and date of download
Tajikistan State Statistical Agency. Tajikistan Living Standards Survey (TLSS) 2007. Ref. TJK_2007_TLSS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on [date]
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses