The Integrated Household Panel Survey (IHPS) was integrated into the core Integrated Household Survey (IHS) program to study trends in poverty, socioeconomic and agricultural characteristics over time through a longitudinal survey. At the time of the Third Integrated Household Survey (IHS3) 2010 (i.e. baseline), the IHPS sample (known as the IHPS 2010) had been selected, out of the overall IHS3 cross-sectional sample, to be representative at the national-, regional-, urban/rural levels, and for each of the following 6 strata:
(i) Northern Region - Rural
(ii) Northern Region - Urban
(iii) Central Region - Rural
(iv) Central Region - Urban
(v) Southern Region - Rural
(vi) Southern Region - Urban
The IHPS 2013 attempted to track all baseline households as well as individuals that moved away from the baseline dwellings between 2010 and 2013 as long as they were neither servants nor guests at the time of the IHS3; were projected to be at least 12 years of age and were known to be residing in mainland Malawi but excluding those in Likoma Island and in institutions, including prisons, police compounds, and army barracks. Once a split-off individual was located, the new household that he/she formed/joined since 2010 was also brought into the IHPS sample. In view of the tracking rules, the final IHPS 2013 sample, therefore, included a total of 4,000 households that could be traced back to 3,104 baseline households. Given the increasing numbers of households to be tracked, as well as budget/resource constraints, starting in 2016, the IHPS target household sample was adjusted as the households that have been associated with 102 out of 204 baseline EAs. Although the IHPS 2016 cannot be tabulated by region, the stratification of the IHPS 2010 sample by region, urban and rural strata was still maintained with a proportional allocation of the sample across the regions, based on the distribution of the sampling frame from the 2008 Malawi Census. The selection ensured that the IHPS 2016 had a sufficient sample size in the urban stratum to obtain reliable national estimates for the urban and rural domains. Thus, starting in 2016, the IHPS domains of analysis will be limited to the national, urban and rural areas.
The 2016 Integrated Household Panel Survey (IHPS) was launched in April 2016 as part of the Malawi Fourth Integrated Household Survey fieldwork operation. The IHPS 2016 targeted 1,989 households that were interviewed in the IHPS 2013 and that could be traced back to half of the 204 enumeration areas that were originally sampled as part of the Third Integrated Household Survey (IHS3) 2010/11. The panel sample expanded each wave through the tracking of split-off individuals and the new households that they formed. Available as part of this project is the IHPS 2016 data as well as the rereleased IHPS 2010 & 2013 data including only the subsample of 102 EAs with updated panel weights.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The Integrated Household Panel Survey series covers the following topics:
- Household and Geographic Area Identification and Survey Information (data of interview, enumerator's and supervisors' codes, etc.)
- Household Roster
- Time Use and Labor
- Food Consumption (over past one week)
- Food Security
- Non-food Expenditures - over past one week and one month
- Non-food Expenditures - over past three months
- Non-food Expenditures - over past 12 months
- Durable Goods
- Farm Implements, Machinery, and Structures
- Household Enterprises
- Children Living Elsewhere
- Other Income
- Gifts Given Out
- Social Safety Nets
- Subjective Assessment of Well-being
- Shocks and Coping Strategies
- Child Anthropometry
- Deaths in Household
- Garden Roster (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season)
- Plot Roster (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season)
- Garden Details (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season)
- Plot Details (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season)
- Coupon Use (rainy season)
- Other Inputs (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season)
- Crops (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season)
- Seeds (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season)
- Sales/ Storage (both for rainy season and dry (dimba) season)
- Tree/ Permanent Crop Production (last 12 months)
- Tree/ Permanent Crop Sales/ Storage (last 12 months)
- Livestock Products
- Access to Extension Services
- Network Roster
- Fisheries Calendar
- Fisheries Labor (last high season and last low season)
- Fisheries Inputs (last high season and last low season)
- Fisheries Output (last high season and last low season)
- Fish Trading (last high season and last low season)
- Roster of Informants
- Basic Information
- Economic Activities
- Community Needs, Actions and Achievements
- Communal Resource Management
- Communal Organization
Food (production, crisis)
Agriculture & Rural Development
Land (policy, resource management)
Access to Finance
Children & Youth
The IHPS 2016 attempted to track all IHPS 2013 households stemming from 102 of the original 204 baseline panel enumeration areas as well as individuals that moved away from the 2013 dwellings between 2013 and 2016 as long as they were neither servants nor guests at the time of the IHPS 2013; were projected to be at least 12 years of age and were known to be residing in mainland Malawi but excluding those in Likoma Island and in institutions, including prisons, police compounds, and army barracks.
Producers and sponsors
National Statistical Office
Government of Malawi
Living Standards Measurement Study - Integrated Surveys on Agriculture
The World Bank
Government of Malawi
The World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study - Integrated Surveys on Agriculture
Millennium Challenge Corporation
A sub-sample of IHS3 2010 sample enumeration areas (EAs) (i.e. 204 EAs out of 768 EAs) was selected prior to the start of the IHS3 field work with the intention to (i) to track and resurvey these households in 2013 in accordance with the IHS3 fieldwork timeline and as part of the Integrated Household Panel Survey (IHPS 2013) and (ii) visit a total of 3,246 households in these EAs twice to reduce recall associated with different aspects of agricultural data collection. At baseline, the IHPS sample was selected to be representative at the national, regional, urban/rural levels and for each of the following 6 strata: (i) Northern Region - Rural, (ii) Northern Region - Urban, (iii) Central Region - Rural, (iv) Central Region - Urban, (v) Southern Region - Rural, and (vi) Southern Region - Urban. The IHPS 2013 main fieldwork took place during the period of April-October 2013, with residual tracking operations in November-December 2013. Given the budget and resource constraints, for the IHPS 2016 the number of samples EAs in the panel was reduced to 102 out of the 204 EAs. As a result, the domains of analysis are limited to the national, urban and rural areas. Although the results of the IHPS 2016 cannot be tabulated by region, the stratification of the IHPS by region, urban and rural strata was maintained.
The methodology used to calculate the IHPS panel weights (provided in the data as “panelweight”) is discussed in detail in “Weight calculations for panel surveys with sub-sampling and split-off tracking” (Himelein, 2013). In order to analyse the IHPS 2013 data and produce accurate representativeness of the population, the sample variables must be weighted using the variable “panelweight” and taking into account the complex survey design.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
DATA ENTRY PLATFORM
To ensure data quality and timely availability of data, the IHPS 2016 was implemented using the World Bank's Survey Solutions CAPI software. To carry out full IHS4 and IHPS 2016, 1 laptop computer and a wireless internet router were assigned to each team supervisor, and each enumerator had an 8-inch GPS-enabled Samsung Galaxy Tab S2 tablet computer. The use of Survey Solutions allowed for the real-time availability of data as the completed data was completed, approved by the Supervisor and synced to the Headquarters server as frequently as possible. While administering the first module of the questionnaire the enumerator(s) also used their tablets to record the GPS coordinates of the dwelling units. In Survey Solutions, Headquarters can then see the location of the dwellings plotted on a map of Malawi to better enable supervision from afar - checking both the number of interviews performed and the fact that the sample households lie within EA boundaries. Geo-referenced household locations from that tablet complemented the GPS measurements taken by the Garmin eTrex 30 handheld devices and these were linked with publicly available geospatial databases to enable the inclusion of a number of geospatial variables - extensive measures of distance (i.e. distance to the nearest market), climatology, soil and terrain, and other environmental factors - in the analysis.
The IHS4 and IHPS 2016 Survey Solutions CAPI based data entry application was designed to stream-line the data collection process from the field. IHS4 Interviews were collected in “sample” mode (assignments generated from headquarters) as opposed to “census” mode (new interviews created by interviewers from a template) for the NSO to have more control over the sample.
The range and consistency checks built into the application was informed by the LSMS-ISA experience in IHS3 and IHPS. Prior programming of the data entry application allowed for a wide variety of range and consistency checks to be conducted and reported and potential issues investigated and corrected before closing the assigned enumeration area. Headquarters (NSO management) assigned work to supervisors based on their regions of coverage. Supervisors then made assignments to the enumerators linked to their Supervisor account. The work assignments and syncing of completed interviews took place through a Wi-Fi connection to the IHS4 server. Because the data was available in real time it was monitored closely throughout the entire data collection period and upon receipt of the data at headquarters, data was exported to STATA for other consistency checks, data cleaning, and analysis.
The data cleaning process was done in several stages over the course of field work and through preliminary analysis. The first stage of data cleaning was conducted in the field by the field based field teams utilizing errors generated with the Survey Solutions application. For questions that flagged an error, enumerators were expected to record a comment within the questionnaire to explain to their Supervisor the reason for the error and confirming that they double checked the response with the respondent. Supervisors were expected to sync the enumerator tablets as frequently as possible to avoid having many questionnaires on the tablet, and to enable daily checks of questionnaires. Some Supervisors preferred to review completed interviews on the tablets so they would review prior to syncing but still record the notes in the Supervisor account and reject questionnaires accordingly. The second stage of data cleaning was also done in the field and this resulted from the additional error reports generated in STATA and sent to teams via email. Field supervisors collected reports for their assignments and in coordination with the enumerators reviewed, investigated, and collected errors. Due to the quick turn-around in error reporting, it was possible to conduct call backs while the team was still operating in the enumeration area when required. Corrections to the data were entered in the rejected questionnaires and sent back to headquarters.
Additional cleaning was performed after interviews were "Approved" where appropriate to resolve systematic errors and organize data modules for consistency and efficient use. Case by case cleaning was also performed during the preliminary analysis specifically pertaining to out of range and outlier variables. All cleaning activities were conducted in collaboration with the WB staff providing technical assistance to the NSO in the design and implementation of the IHS4 and IHPS 2016.
National Statistical Office
Ministry of Economic Planning and Development (MoEPD))
LSMS Data Manager
The World Bank
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Commissioner Mercy Kanyuka
National Statistical Office
P.O. Box 333
Tel: +265 (0) 1 524 377/111
Fax: +265 (0) 1 525 130
web site: www.nso.malawi.net
The World Bank
Development Economics Research Group
LSMS Database Administrator
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433, USA
tel: (202) 473-9041
fax: (202) 522-1153
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