This is the first Living Standards Survey (LSS) conducted in Vietnam. Other LSS were conducted in 1997, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008.
The principal objective of the LSS is to collect basic data reflecting the actual living standard of the population. These data then be used for evaluating socio-economic development and formulation policies to improve living standard. The LSS should enable decision makers to identify target groups for government assistance, construct models of socio-economic development policies, both overall and on individuals groups and analyse the impact of decisions available and of the current economic situation on living condition of household. Followings are the main goals by the year of 2000:
- Reduce the population growth rate less than 2 % per year
- Reduce the infant mortality (under 5 years old) 0,81% (1990) to 0,55%; and from 0,46% (1990) to 0,3% (under one year old)
- Reduce the mortality rate of women concerning the pregnancy and maternity
- Reduce the malnutrition of children under 5years old from 51,5% at present to 40% in 1995 and under 30% by the year of 2000. Heavy malnutrition should not be existed by the year of 2000.
- Population can access to safe water resources from 43% (1990) to 82% of which 40% to 80% in rural areas. Population use sanitary latrine from 22% (1990) to 65% of which in rural areas from 15% to 60%
- 90 percent of children complete the endeavour universal first level education before the age of 15, and the rest should complete the third grade. By the year of 2000 no children at the age of 15 will be illiterate
- Improve the cultural, spiritual life of the children, to ensure that 30% of communes (by the year of 1995) and 50% of communes (by the year of 2000) have entertaining place for children.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
(a) HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE:
Section 1 HOUSEHOLD
Section 2 SCHOOLING
Section 3 HEALTH
Section 4 EMPLOYMENT
Section 5 MIGRATION
Section 6 HOUSING
Section 7 RESPONDENTS CHOSEN FOR ROUND TWO
Section 8 FERTILITY
Section 9 AGRO-PASTORAL ACTIVITIES
Section 10 NON-FARM SELF-EMPLOYMENT
Section 11 FOOD EXPENSES AND HOME PRODUCTION
Section 12 NON-FOOD EXPENDITURES & INVENTORY OF DURABLE GOODS
Section 13 OTHER INCOME
Section 14 CREDIT AND SAVING
Section 15 ANTHROPOMETRICS
(b) COMMUNITY QUESTIONNAIRE:
Section 1 DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION
Section 2 ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE
Section 3 EDUCATION
Section 4 HEALTH
Section 5 AGRICULTURE
(c) PRICE QUESTIONNAIRE
Population & Reproductive Health
Agriculture & Rural Development
Food (production, crisis)
Access to Finance
Producers and sponsors
General Statistical Office (GSO)
State Planning Committee (SPC)
The World Bank
Swedish International Development Authority
United Nations Development Program
(a) SAMPLE DESIGN
The sample covers 4800 households from all areas of Viet Nam. The sample design was self-weighted, which means that each household in Viet Nam had the same probability of being selected. The overall sampling frame was stratified into two groups urban and rural, with sampling was carried out separately in each group (strata). About 20% of Vietnamese households live in urban areas, so the sample stratification ensures that 20% of selected households also come from urban areas. Within urban and rural areas, two lists of all communes were drawn up (one of urban communes and another of rural ones), province by province, in "serpentine" order. 2 The selection of communes within each list was done to ensure that they were spread out evenly among all provinces in Viet Nam. The LSS sample design is the following:
Within each province in Viet Nam, rural areas can be broken down into districts, and districts in turn are divided into communes (Xa). Urban areas in all provinces consist of centres/towns, which are divided into quarters (Quai), and then divided further into communes (Phuong). The number of communes in all of Viet Nam, both urban and rural, is about 10,000, and the average population in each is about 6,500. As explained in Section 4, each survey team covers 32 households in 4 weeks, 16 households in one area, and 16 in another area. For convenience all 32 households (i.e. both sets of 16 household) were selected from the same commune. This implied that 150 communes needed to be randomly selected (32x150=4800), 30 in urban areas and 120 in urban areas. Within urban areas communes can be further divided into clusters (Cum), two of which were selected from which to draw two "workloads" of 16 households (16 from each of the two clusters). The same was done in rural areas, where each commune is divided into several villages (Thon). The average size of urban clusters and rural villages is somewhat less than 1000 households. The VNLSS sample was drawn in three stages. Because the General Statistical Office in Hanoi knows the current population of each commune in Viet Nam (but not of each cluster or village within each commune), 150 communes were selected out of the 10,000 in all of Viet Nam with the probability of selection proportional to their population size. At the second stage, information was gathered from the 150 selected communes on the population of each cluster (in urban areas) or villages (in rural areas), and two clusters or villages were randomly drawn with probability proportional to their population size. Finally, the third stage involved random selection of 20 households (16 for the sample plus four "extras" to serve as replacements if some of the 16 "originals" could not be interviewed) within each cluster or village from a list of all households within each cluster or village. Note that the first stage of the sample is based on information from the 1989 Census, but the second and third stages use updated information available from the communes.
The first and second stage samples were drawn in Hanoi, while the third stage was drawn in the field. 150 communes were chosen, one was in a very remote and inaccessible area near the Chinese border and was replaced by another not quite as inaccessible. The actual interview schedule went smoothly. In one instance (commune 68) one of the selected villages was replaced because when the survey team arrived in the village it discovered that most of the adults were away from the village and thus could not be interviewed. In each cluster or village interviews were completed for 16 households, thus the 4800 household target sample was fully achieved. About 3% of the households (155) were replaced; the main reason for replacement was that their occupants were not at home. Only four households refused to participate. Community questionnaires were completed for all 120 rural communes. Price questionnaires were completed for 118 of 120 communes (the exceptions were communes 62 and 63), and comparable price data were collected from existing sources for all 30 urban areas.
Sample weight weren't used in the Vietnam living standard survey 1992 - 1993
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The Viet Nam Living Standards Survey format calls for two rounds of interviews and data entry in the field itself. The purpose of this format is to minimize response and data entry errors and offer the possibility of rechecking information with households. Achieving these objectives requires continuous monitoring on the part of the supervisors of each survey team. The quality of interviewing and supervision varied from one survey team to another, but on the whole the survey effort was very good. The procedure that the supervisors are supposed to follow is the following. Data collected in the first round is checked by the supervisor prior to the second round and necessary clarifications sought from the concerned household during the second round. Since the bulk of expenditure data are collected in the second round this particular checking is not possible for expenditure information. But since data are entered in the field office itself, the supervisor can check data from the second round, after the interview, and, in theory, check with households for which there are questionable data. All responses obtained from individual, household, and community interviews were recorded in questionnaires. These were then entered into the computer, in the field, using data entry programs written in BASIC. The data produced by the data entry program are in the form of household files, i.e. one data file for all of the data in one household/community questionnaire. In the case of the household survey, this means 4800 data files, and in the case of community and price surveys this means 120 files each.
One specific issue that arose during the process of data collection was that in the early stages of the survey, it was observed that expenditures on some items were larger than what could be accommodated with the data entry program in use at that point. This was particularly the case in the southern part of the country. To accommodate these larger expenditures, the data entry program was modified to increase the number of digits available for recording values. Initially, this created some problems with the data entry program, and data that had been entered using earlier versions of the program. But these were resolved by the survey team and have had no effect on the quality of expenditure data. Other than this particular issue there does not appear to be any widespread problems with the data. The data have been used by the State Planning Committee and the General Statistical Office to produce a statistical abstract and a set of papers on health, education, employment, and agriculture, and no serious concerns about data quality have been expressed. Work done at the World Bank has not uncovered serious problems with the data.
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
The 1992/93 and 1997/98 Viet Nam Living Standards Survey (VLSS), and 2002 and 2004 Viet Nam Household Living Standards Survey data are the property of the government of Vietnam. Permission to use the VLSS data must be obtained from the General Statistical Office in Hanoi, Vietnam. The request should be submitted to:
Mr. Nguyen The Quan
Department of Social and Environment Statistics
General Statistical Office 2,
Hoang Van Thu Street
The request should include a brief (one page) explanation of the proposed research.
TENTATIVE FEES FOR USE OF THE DATA
Fee for one data set A. For Vietnamese individuals and Vietnamese organizations:
· Vietnamese organizations with domestic budget: $US200*
· Vietnamese organizations with financial support from foreign and international budget: $US400*
· Vietnamese individual with own pocket money: $US100
*In the case of institutions, the fee paid allows many people/projects belonging to the institutions to utilize the data. B. For foreigners/ foreign or international organizations: · Foreign or international organizations: $US2000*
· Individual foreigners using the data set for own research/study/lectures preparation:
· Citizens of a developing country: $US200
· Citizens of a developed country: $US500
*In the case of institutions, the fee paid allows many people/projects belonging to the institutions to utilize the data. Fee for two data sets: 1.5 times higher than the fee for one data set PAYMENT An additional $US20 fee is required for shipping the CD-ROM by airmail. The procedure on getting the VLSS data sets is as follows: Pay the fee for data set(s) to the following account with a bank transfer.
DO NOT SEND PERSONAL CHECKS:
Account name: TONG CUC THONG KE
Account number: 001 1 37 008159 0
Bank name: BANK FOR FOREIGN TRADE OF VIET NAM Bank
address: 23 Phan Chu Trinh Street, Ha Noi, Viet Nam
Once the bank confirms that the payment for the fee is available in the account, a CD-ROM with data set(s) and related materials will be sent to you by airmail.
CONDITIONS OF USE
The user must respect the copyright of the data and should not allow other users to use the data without permission of the GSO. The user is requested to send to the GSO the results of use of the data at least one month before their publication.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Example: Vietnam General Statistical Office. Vietnam Living Standards Survey 1992-1993. Ref. VNM_1992_VLSS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://microdata.worldbank.org on [date].
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The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses