CGAP has been working to build the evidence base on the financial and agricultural lives of smallholder households. This nationally-representative survey of smallholder households collected information on household demographics, poverty status, agricultural activities, income sources and expenses, mobile phones, and informal and formal financial services. The data was used to detail a national picture of the smallholder sector and identify the characteristics of its key segments in a segmentation analysis. To date, CGAP has smallholder household surveys completed or underway in Mozambique, Uganda, Tanzania, Cote d'Ivoire, and Bangladesh. This study is from Nigeria.
The objectives of the Smallholder Household Survey in Nigeria were to:
• Generate a clear picture of the smallholder sector at the national level, including household demographics, agricultural profile, and poverty status and market relationships
• Segment smallholder households in Nigeria according to the most compelling variables that emerge
• Characterize the demand for financial services in each segment, focusing on customer needs, attitudes and perceptions related to both agricultural and financial services
• Detail how the financial needs of each segment are currently met, with both informal and formal services, and where there may be promising opportunities to add value
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The CGAP national surveys of smallholder households used three questionnaires:
1. HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE
Respondent: Head of the household, their spouse, or a knowledgeable adult
· Basic information on all household members (e.g. age, gender, education attainment, schooling status)
· Information about household assets and dwelling characteristics in order to derive poverty status.
2. MULTIPLE RESPONDENT QUESTIONNAIRE
Respondents: All household members over 15 years old who contributed to the household income and/or participated in its agricultural activities
· Demographics (e.g. land size, crop and livestock, decision-making, associations and markets, financial behaviours)
· Agricultural activities (e.g. selling, trading, consuming crops, livestock, suppliers)
· Household economics (e.g., employment, income sources, expenses, shocks, borrowing, saving habits, investments)
3. SINGLE RESPONDENT QUESTIONNAIRE
Respondent: One randomly-selected adult in the household
· Agricultural activities (e.g. market relationships, storage, risk mitigation)
· Household economics (e.g. expense prioritization, insurance, financial outlook)
· Mobile phones (e.g., usage, access, ownership, desire and importance)
· Formal and informal financial tools (e.g. ownership, usage, access, importance, attitudes toward financial service providers)
Agriculture & Rural Development
Food (production, crisis)
Land (policy, resource management)
Access to Finance
Community Driven Development
Information & Communication Technologies
Producers and sponsors
The World Bank (GFMGP - CGAP)
InterMedia Survey Institute
InterMedia Survey Institute
(a) SAMPLING PROCEDURE
The smallholder household survey in Nigeria is a nationally-representative survey with a target sample size of 3,000 smallholder households. In order to take nonresponse into account, the target sample size was increased to 3,225 households assuming a response rate of 93%. The sample was designed to produce national level estimates as well as estimates for each of the six geo-political zones. Nigeria is comprised of the following states:
- North Central: Benue, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Kogi, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger, and Plateau
- North East: Adamawa, Bauci, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe
- North West: Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara
- South East: Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo
- South South: Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, and River
- South West: Ekiti, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, and Oyo
(b) SAMPLING FRAME
Nigeria is divided into 774 local governments (LGAs) and its last housing and population census took place in 2006. In preparation for this last census, the National Population Commission (NPopC) demarcated over 662,000 enumeration areas (EAs) for the country. From these EAs, two hierarchical master sample frames were developed by the Nigeria Bureau of Statistics (NBS): the LGA master frame and the National Integrated Survey of Households (NISH). The smallholder survey used the NISH as sampling frame but retained only the EAs containing agricultural households.
(c) SAMPLE ALLOCATION AND SELECTION
The total sample size was first allocated to the geo-political zones in proportion to their number of agricultural EAs in the sampling frame. Within each zone, the resulting sample was then further distributed to states proportionally to their number of agricultural EAs. Given that EAs were the primary sampling units and 15 households were selected in each EA, a total number of 215 EAs were selected. The sample for the smallholder survey is a stratified multistage sample. A stratum corresponds to a state and the sample was selected independently in each stratum. In the first stage, EAs were selected as primary sampling units with equal probability. A household listing operation was carried out in all selected EAs to identify smallholder households and to provide a frame for the selection of smallholder households to be included in the sample. In the second stage, 15 smallholders were selected in each EA with equal probability. In each selected household, a household questionnaire was administered to the head of the household, the spouse or any knowledgeable adult household member to collect information about household characteristics. A multiple respondent questionnaire was administered to all adult members in each selected household to collect information on their agricultural activities, financial behaviours and mobile money usage. In addition, in each selected household only one household member was selected using the Kish grid and was administered the single respondent questionnaire.
The full description of the sample design can be found in the user guide for this data set.
Deviations from the Sample Design
The household listing operation identified fewer than 15 smallholder households in many sampled EAs. As a result, the sample take of 15 households per EA couldn't be implemented in those EAs. To avoid a situation where a sample falls short, the sample take was increased to 17 smallholder households where possible while retaining in the sample all smallholder households in EAs with fewer than 17 smallholder households. This yielded 3,457 sampled households.
- A total of 3,457 households was selected for the survey, of which 3,310 were found to be occupied during data collection. Of these occupied households, 3,026 were successfully interviewed, yielding a household response rate of 91 percent.
- In the interviewed households 6,643 eligible household members were identified for the Multiple Respondent questionnaire. Interviews were completed with 5,128 eligible household members, yielding a response rate of 77 percent for the Multiple Respondent questionnaire.
- Among the 3,206 eligible household members selected for the Single Respondent questionnaire, 2,773 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 92 percent.
The sample for the smallholder household survey is not self-weighting; therefore, sampling weights were calculated. The first component of the weights is the design weight based on the probability of selection for each stage. The second component uses the response rate at both household and individual levels. The design weights for households were adjusted for nonresponse at the household level to produce adjusted household weights. Sampling weights for the multiple respondent data file were derived from adjusted household weights by applying to them nonresponse rates at the individual level. For the single respondent data file, the same process was applied after considering the subsampling done within the household. Finally, household and individual sampling weights were normalized separately at the national level, so the weighted number of cases equals the total sample size. The normalized sampling weights were attached to the different datasets and used during analysis.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
The data files were checked for completeness, inconsistencies and errors by InterMedia and corrections were made as necessary and where possible. Following the finalization of questionnaires, a script was developed using Dooblo to support data collection on smart phones. The script was thoroughly tested and validated before its use in the field. The sample design for the smallholder household survey was a complex sample design featuring clustering, stratification and unequal probabilities of selection.
Estimates of Sampling Error
For key survey estimates, sampling errors considering the design features were produced using either the SPSS Complex Sample module or STATA based on the Taylor series approximation method.
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the data depositor.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified on public use data files.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the data depositor.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Anderson, Jamie. World Bank. 2016. CGAP Smallholder Household Survey in Nigeria 2016, Building the Evidence Base on the Agricultural and Financial Lives of Smallholder Households. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, CGAP (Consultative Group to Assist the Poor).
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses