Kagera Health and Development Survey 1991-1994 (Wave 1 to 4 Panel)
United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar
Living Standards Measurement Study [hh/lsms]
This dataset provides waves 1 to 4 (1991-1994) of the panel Kagera Health and Development Survey. A fifth wave was conducted in 2004.
The Kagera Health and Development Survey was conducted to estimate the economic impact of the death of prime-age adults on surviving household members. This impact was primarily measured as the difference in well-being between households with and without the death of a prime-age adult (15-50), over time. An additional hypothesis was that households in communities with high mortality rates might be less successful in coping with a prime-age adult death. Thus, the research design called for collecting extensive socioeconomic information from households with and without adult deaths in communities with high and low adult mortality rates. Data collected by the KHDS can be used to estimate the "direct costs” of illness and mortality in terms of out-of-pocket expenditures, the "indirect costs" in terms of foregone earnings of the patient, and the "coping costs” in terms of changes in the well-being of other household members and in the allocation on of time and resources within the household as these events unfold. The KHDS was an economic survey. It did not attempt to measure knowledge, attitudes, behaviours or practices related to HIV infection or AIDS in households or communities. It also did not collect blood samples or attempt to measure HIV seroprevalence; this would have substantially affected the costs and complexity of the research and possibly the willingness of households to participate. Information on the cause of death in the KHDS household survey is based on the reports of surviving household members; the researchers maintained that household coping will respond to the perceived cause of death, irrespective of whether the deceased actually died of AIDS. Lastly, the KHDS did not attempt to measure the psycho-social impact of HIV infection or AIDS deaths.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
(a) HOUSEHOLD LEVEL INFORMATION
- Demographic characteristics
- Health status, symptoms, health-seeking behaviour and medical expenditures
- Nutritional status
- Mortality and related expenditures
- Human capital, enrolments and education expenditures
- Fertility and contraceptive use
- Time use in the labour force, other productive and health-related activities
- Income levels and sources
- Assets and durable goods, including housing, farm and business assets
- Consumption expenditure, by component
- Savings, debts, transfers and receipt of assistance
- Characteristics of non-resident parents and children, including their mortality Community-level information
- Demographic characteristics
- Economy and infrastructure
- Culture Health facility information
- Characteristics of the Facility
- Family Planning
- Inpatient Services
- Fee Exemption Policies School facility information
- Characteristics, enrolments, and fees
- Number of textbooks (Kiswahili, math, other) available for the students of each grade
- Number of classes, enrolled students, enrolled female students, students who attended last week, and two-parent orphans enrolled for each grade
- Assistance provided to the school (added on second passage)
(b) PRICE DATA
- Prices of key consumption goods
Population & Reproductive Health
Access to Finance
Migration & Remittances
Agriculture & Rural Development
Food (production, crisis)
The KHDS attempts to re-interview all respondents interviewed in the original KHDS 1991-1994, irrespective of whether the respondent had moved out of the original village, region or country or was residing in a new household.
Producers and sponsors
University of Dar es Salaam
(a) SAMPLE DESIGN AND SELECTION
Qualitative studies of small samples of households can point to hypotheses about the ways in which fatal adult illness affects households. However, policymakers need to know which households are suffering the most, the size of the impact, the extent to which they suffer more than other households in a poor country, and the potential costs and effects of assistance programs. For this purpose, the sample of households must be representative of the population, a random sample for which the probability of selecting each household from the whole population is known. The KHDS used a random sample that was stratified geographically and according to several measures of adult mortality risk. This strategy allowed the team to ensure an adequate number of households with an adult death in the sample while retaining the ability to extrapolate the results to the entire population. The results from the household survey show that stratification of the sample on mortality risk at both the community and household level proved to be worthwhile. Among the 816 households in the original sample that began the survey in the first passage, 91 had an adult death in the course of the survey-more than three times the expected number (25) had the households been drawn at random with no stratification. The 816 households that began the survey in the first passage were observed, on average, for 1.6 years, generating a total of 1,322.7 years of observation. The average probability of an adult death per household per year, according to the 1988 Tanzania Census, is 0.0188. Thus, the expected number of deaths from a random sample of 816 households observed for 1.6 years is 25. Because households were added to the sample to compensate for attrition, a total of 918 households were eventually interviewed at least once. Between the first and last interview, 102 of these households had an adult death, compared to 27 households that would have been expected to have a death from a non-stratified sample.
(b) SAMPLING PROCEDURE
The KHDS household sample was drawn in two stages, with stratification based on geography in the first stage and mortality risk in both stages. It used a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure.
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