In late 2003—early 2004, the Pacific Community (SPC) conducted a survey of a number of Pacific regional fisheries authorities to determine their views on the information that should be collected in socioeconomic surveys to support reef fisheries management. In 2004, PROCFish/C project conducted fieldwork in Kiribati in 4 different sites.
The coastal component of the Pacific Regional Oceanic and Coastal Fisheries Development Programme (PROCFish/C) conducted fieldwork in four locations around Kiribati from May to November 2004. Kiribati is one of 17 Pacific Island countries and territories being surveyed over a 5-6 year period by PROCFish or its associated programme CoFish (Pacific Regional Coastal Fisheries Development Programme). The aim of the survey work was to provide baseline information on the status of reef fisheries, and to help fill the massive information gap that hinders the effective management of reef fisheries. Other programme outputs include:
• implementation of the first comprehensive multi-country comparative assessment of reef fisheries (finfish, invertebrates and socioeconomics) ever undertaken in the Pacific Islands region using identical methodologies at each site;
• dissemination of country reports that comprise a set of 'reef fisheries profiles' for the sites in each country in order to provide information for coastal fisheries development and management planning;
• development of a set of indicators (or reference points to fishery status) to provide guidance when developing local and national reef fishery management plans and monitoring programmes; and
• development of data and information management systems, including regional and national databases.
Survey work in Kiribati covered three disciplines (finfish, invertebrate and socioeconomic) in each site, with two sites surveyed on each trip by a team of three programme scientists and several local attachments from the Fisheries Department. The fieldwork included capacity building for the local counterparts through instruction on survey methodologies in all three disciplines, including the collection of data and inputting the data into the programme's database. In Kiribati, the four sites selected for the survey were Abaiang, Abemama, Kuria and Kiritimati.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the study was:
Household size and composition
Ranked sources of income and average household expenditure level
Average household consumption patterns and sources
Average number of fishers and boats per household
Education level of adult members of the household
When, how often and during which months of the year fishers go out to particular habitats
Average catch size
Proportion of the catch targeted for subsistence, gift and sale, and preservation
How finfish and invertebrates are preserved
Community's fishing grounds
Major problems relating to the use/management of the community's marine resources
Quantities by species or groups marketed
Quality and processing level of species marketed;
Price in local currency/USD
Quantitative and qualitative changes in marketing perceived over a period of time
Agriculture & Rural Development
Food (production, crisis)
Access to Finance
The survey covered de jure household members. All household members responding the "Finfishers" and "Invertebrate fishers" questionnaires must be aged 15 years and over and must be living in the household surveyed.
Producers and sponsors
Coastal Fisheries Programme
Pacific Community (SPC)
Reef Fisheries Observatory
At each site the extent of the community to be covered by the socioeconomic survey is determined by the size, nature and use of the fishing grounds. This selection process is highly dependent on local marine tenure rights. For example, in the case of community-owned fishing rights, a fishing community includes all villages that have access to a particular fishing ground. If the fisheries of all the villages concerned are comparable, one or two villages may be selected as representative samples, and consequently surveyed. Results will then be extrapolated to include all villages accessing the same fishing grounds under the same marine tenure system.
Most of the households included in the survey are chosen by simple random selection, as are the finfish and invertebrate fishers associated with any of these households. In addition, important participants in one or several particular fisheries may be selected for complementary surveying. Random sampling is used to provide an average and representative picture of the fishery situation in each community, including those who do not fish, those engaged in finfish and/or invertebrate fishing for subsistence, and those engaged in fishing activities on a small-scale artisanal basis. This assumption applies provided that selected communities are mostly traditional, relatively small (~100-300 households) and (from a socioeconomic point of view) largely homogenous. Similarly, gender and participation patterns (types of fishers by gender and fishery) revealed through the surveys are assumed to be representative of the entire community. Accordingly, harvest figures reported by male and female fishers participating in a community's various fisheries may be extrapolated to assess the impacts resulting from the entire community, sample size permitting (at least 25-30% of all households).
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
(a) CLEANING OPERATIONS
A software programme (SEMCoS) has been developed in tandem with this manual to assist in automatically performing all necessary analysis and producing outputs for the data collected.
(b) OTHER PROCESSING
Data from all questionnaire forms are entered in the Reef Fisheries Integrated Database (RFID) system. All data entered are first verified and 'cleaned' prior to analysis. In the process of data entry, a comprehensive list of vernacular and corresponding scientific names for finfish and invertebrate species is developed. Database queries have been defined and established that allow automatic retrieval of the descriptive statistics used when summarising results at the site and national levels.
Public-use file, accessible to all.
"Pacific Community's Coastal Fisheries Programme, Kiribati PROCFish/C - Socio-Economic survey 2004 (SE-PROCFISH 2004), Version 01 of the public-use dataset (2004), provided by the Microdata Library. https://microdata.pacificdata.org/index.php/home"
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses