South Africa has conducted Censuses of Commercial Agriculture (CCAs) in 2002 and 2007
In 2009, Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) conducted a study to evaluate the state of agricultural statistics in the country. The research sought to evaluate the quality, quantity (depth and breadth) and frequency of agricultural statistics as provided in the country at the time. The research revealed, among others, that agricultural statistics, at the time, fell short in terms of the specified aspects. Critically, regarding quantity, the country lacked information on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. In addition, the agricultural sector lacked a comprehensive frame (farmer list) that covered all agricultural activities in the country as the current census of commercial agriculture was partially covering the sector. A decision was reached in 2010 to include three questions related to agriculture in the Population Census 2011 (Census 2011) questionnaire. The main objective was to identify all households involved in agriculture in the country in order to plan a frame for a proper agricultural census. The list of households engaged in agriculture generated from the above exercise of Census 2011 will complement the current tax based frame sourced from the South African Revenue Service (SARS) to develop a complete frame of all agricultural activities in the country. The data presented in this report is obtained from Census 2011 and provide useful insights on the geographic sphere. Specifically, the information presented is a result of the three agricultural questions, which were included in the population questionnaire. This information is critical for the measurement of the food security of the country at both national and household levels.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the study covered topics related to agriculture, livestock (including marine) and income.
Agriculture & Rural Development
Forests & Forestry
Food (production, crisis)
Land (policy, resource management)
Access to Finance
The statistical unit for the collection of census data was a "farming enterprise", defined as "a legal unit or a combination of legal units that includes and directly controls all functions necessary to carry out its production activities".
Producers and sponsors
Statistics South Africa (Stats SA)
Statistics South Africa
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
i. Methodological modality for conducting the census
The CCA 2007 used the classical approach.
The main source of the frame was the business register, which contains all businesses undertaking agricultural activities registered for VAT with the South African Revenue Service (the Tax Office).
iii. Complete and/or sample enumeration methods
The 2007 CCA was conducted on the basis of a complete enumeration of farming enterprises.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The CCA used a single questionnaire for census data collection on:
· Ownership of farm
· Particulars of the farming unit
· Land-use during the reporting period
· Field crops, horticultural products and forestry
· Animals, animal products
· Other income
· Current expenditure
· Purchased livestock, poultry and additional products
· Market value of assets and capital expenditure during the financial year
· Losses and expenditure due to theft, disaster, accidents and violent crimes
· Farming debt
· Agricultural services
· Balance sheet
· Ocean (marine) fishing
The census questionnaire covered 14 of the 16 core items recommended for the WCA 2010. Core items not covered were (i) "Household size"; and (ii) "Main purpose of production of the holding".
1. DATA PROCESSING AND ARCHIVING
Manual data entry was used for the census questionnaires. Data entry application with consistency checks and skip patterns was applied. Ratio imputation was used for both item and unit non-response.
2. CENSUS DATA QUALITY
Several steps were put in place to ensure the quality of census results, for example: careful design of the questionnaire and its testing in pilot studies; preparation of training manuals and training of enumerators; equipping the capturing system with warnings and consistency checks. Comparisons were made with the frame and with the estimates of the 2002 CoCA, and with the estimates from the annual agriculture and related services survey, as well as with various sources that reported on the sector.
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF)
Statistics South Africa (Stat SA)
Address: ISIbalo House, Koch Street, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
Telephone: (+27) (0) 123108911
Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF)
Address: 20 Steve Biko Street, Agriculture Place, Arcadia, Pretoria Private, Bag X250, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa
Telephone: (+27) (0) 123196000
see aslo http://www.statssa.gov.za/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Access_to_information.pdf
Stat SA. 2010. Census of commercial agriculture, 2007. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa.
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