The 2007/2008 National Sample Census of Agriculture (NSCA) is the fourth agricultural census to be carried out in the United Republic of Tanzania since the country independence. The first agricultural census was conducted in 1971/1972, the second in 1994/1995, and the third in 2002/2003.
At the end of the 2007/08 Agricultural Year, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) in collaboration with the Ministries of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives, Livestock and Fisheries Development; Water; Industry and Trade; the Prime Minister's Office, Regional Administration and Local Government (PMO/RALG) and the Office of the Chief Government Statistician, (OCGS), Ministries of Agriculture and Natural Resources; Livestock and Fisheries conducted the Agricultural Sample Census. This is the fourth Agricultural Census to be carried out in Tanzania, the first one was conducted in 1971/72, the second in 1993/94 and 1994/95 (during 1993/94 data on household characteristics and livestock count were collected and data on crop area and production in 1994/95), and the third was conducted in 2002/03. The census collected detailed data on crop production, crop marketing, crop storage, livestock production, fish farming, and poverty indicators. In addition to this, the census was large in its scope and coverage as it provides data that can be disaggregated at district level and thus allow comparisons with the 2002/03 National Sample Census of Agriculture. The census covered smallholders in rural areas only and large scale farms. This report presents data disaggregated at regional level and it focuses on livestock kept by small holders and Large Scale Farms.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the study covered the following topics:
· Household demographics and activities of the household members
· Land access/ownership/tenure and use
· Crop and livestock production and productivity
· Access to inputs and farming implements
· Access and use of credits
· Access to infrastructure (roads, district and regional headquarters, markets, advisory services, schools, hospitals, veterinary clinics)
· Crop marketing, storage and agro-processing
· Tree farming, agro-forestry and fish farming
· Access and use of communal resources (grazing, communal forest, water for human and livestock, beekeeping)
· Investment activities: Irrigation structures, water harvesting, erosion control, fencing
· Off farm income and non-agriculture related activities
· Household living conditions (housing, sanitary facilities, etc)
· Livelihood constraints Gender issues
· Poverty Indicators
Agriculture & Rural Development
Food (production, crisis)
Land (policy, resource management)
Access to Finance
The statistical unit was the agricultural holding, defined as an economic unit of agricultural production under single management consisting of all livestock kept and of all land used for agricultural production, without regard to title, legal form or size. Four types of agricultural holdings (farming) were identified during the interview: (i) crops only; (ii) livestock only; (iii) pastoralist; and (iv) crops and livestock.
Producers and sponsors
the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)
Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives (MAFC)
Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development
Ministry of Industry and Trade
Ministry of Water
Prime Minister's Office - Regional Administration and Local Government
Office of the Chief Government Statistician
Department for International Development
Japan International Cooperation Agency
Government of Tanzania
Food and Agriculture Organisation
(a) Sample Design
The mainland sample consisted of 3,192 villages. These villages were drawn from the National Master Sample (NMS) developed by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) to serve as national framework for the conduct of household based surveys in the country. The National Master Sample was developed from the 2002 Population and Housing Census. The total Mainland sample was 47,880 agricultural households. In Zanzibar a total of 317 Enumeration Areas (EAs) were selected and 4,755 agriculture households were covered. National wide, all regions and districts were sampled except four (three from Mainland and one from Zanzibar). In both Mainland and Zanzibar, a two stage sample was used. The number of villages/Enumeration Areas (EAs) was selected for the first stage with a probability proportional to the number of villages/EAs in each district. In the second stage, 15 households were selected from a list of households in each village/EA using systematic random sampling.
The National Master Sample was developed from the Population and Housing Census (PHC) 2002. Listing forms were used to screen the agricultural households in the selected villages.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
For some large-scale farms, questionnaires were sent via post for self-interviewing (using the mail-out/mail-back method).
Three different questionnaires were used to collect census data:
(i) a small-scale farms questionnaire
(ii) a large-scale farms questionnaire
(iii) a community-level questionnaire
The questionnaires covered all 16 core items recommended in the WCA 2010, namely;
0001 Identification and location of agricultural holding
0002+ Legal status of agricultural holder
0003 Sex of agricultural holder
0004 Age of agricultural holder
0005 Household size
0006 Main purpose of production of the holding
0007 Area of holding according to land use types
0008 Total area of holding
0009 Land tenure types on the holding
0010 Presence of irrigation on the holding
0011 Types of temporary crops on the holding
0012 Types of permanent crops on the holding and whether in compact plantation
0013 Number of animals on the holding for each livestock type
0014 Presence of aquaculture on the holding
0015+ Presence of forest and other wooded land on the holding
0016 Other economic production activities of the holding's enterprise
(a) Data entry
Scanning and ICR data capture technology was used. This did not only increase the speed of data entry but also increased the accuracy due to reduction of keystroke errors. Interactive validation routines were incorporated into the ICR software to trap errors during the verification process. Prior to scanning, all questionnaires underwent a manual cleaning exercise by checking that the questionnaire had a full set of pages, correct identification and good handwriting. A score was given to each questionnaire based on the legibility and the completeness of enumeration. This score will be used to assess the quality of enumeration and supervision. CSPro was used for data entry of questionnaires that were rejected by ICR extraction application.
(b) Batch validation
A batch validation program was developed in CSPro in order to identify inconsistencies within a questionnaire. This is in addition to the interactive validation during the ICR extraction process. The procedures varied from simple range checking within each variable to more complexes checking between variables. After data cleaning, the tables were prepared based on a pre-designed tabulation plan.
Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to produce the Census tables and Microsoft Excel was used to organize the tables and compute the additional indicators. Excel was also used to produce charts while Arc GIs was used for the maps.
Data quality Control:
A great deal of emphasis was placed on data quality throughout the whole exercise, from planning; questionnaire design, training supervision, data entry, validation and cleaning/editing. As a result of this, it is believed that the census is highly accurate and representative of what was experienced at the field level during the census year. With very few exceptions, the variables in the questionnaire are within the norms for Tanzania and they follow expected time series trends when compared to historical data.
National Bureau of Statistics
Address: P.O. Box 2683, Dodoma, The United Republic of Tanzania
Telephone: (+255) 262963822
See also https://www.nbs.go.tz/nbs/takwimu/references/Terms-and-Conditions.pdf
National Bureau of Statistics. 2019. Publication [online]. Arusha, The United Republic of Tanzania.
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses