The first Census of Agriculture (CA) in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico was conducted in 1910. From that year to 1950, a CA was taken every ten years, in conjunction with the decennial censuses of population. Later, the timing was adjusted, such that the CA is conducted on the basis of a five-year data collection cycle, covering the years ending in 2 and 7. The CA 2002 for Puerto Rico was the first to be taken on a calendar-year basis, bringing the Puerto Rico census in line with the United States of America; subsequent censuses continue to be done on a calendar basis. The present metadata review and data refers to the CA 2012.
The census of agriculture is taken to obtain agricultural statistics for each county, State (including territories and protectorates), and the Nation. The first U.S. agricultural census data were collected in 1840 as a part of the sixth decennial census. From then to 1920, an agricultural census was taken as a part of each decennial census. Since 1920, a separate national agricultural census has been taken every 5 years.
In Puerto Rico, the 2007 Census of Agriculture was taken in accordance with a Cooperative Agreement signed by NASS, the Puerto Rico Department of Agriculture, and the University of Puerto Rico Extension Service. It is the Island’s 16th census of agriculture, with the first being taken in 1910. From then to 1950, a census of agriculture was taken every 10 years in conjunction with the decennial censuses. In 1935, a special census of Puerto Rico was taken by the Puerto Rican Reconstruction Administration. In 1957, an amendment was made to the law to include Puerto Rico in the quinquennial national census of agriculture. The first census under this amendment was taken in 1959, separately from the 1960 decennial census. From 1959 to 1974, a census of agriculture was taken for the years ending in 4 and 9. In 1976, Congress authorized the census of agriculture to be taken for 1978 and 1982 to adjust the data reference year so that it coincided with other economic censuses. This adjustment in timing established the agriculture census on a 5-year data collection cycle for the years ending in 2 and 7.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the study includes agriculture (including forestry), livestock, sources of income, infrastucture and organization affiliation.
Agriculture & Rural Development
Land (policy, resource management)
Access to Finance
The statistical unit is a farm, defined as "a place from which USD 500 or more of agricultural products were produced and sold, or normally would had been sold, during the 12-month period between 1 January and 31 December 2012." The statistics collected in the census relate to places with agricultural operations qualifying as farms according to the census definition.
Producers and sponsors
National Agricultural Statistics Service
Department of Agriculture
University of Puerto Rico
Cooperative State Research
Education, and Extension Service
i. Methodological modality for conducting the census
The classical approach was used in the CA 2012.
The Puerto Rico CA 2012 was conducted using a multiple frame approach, consisting of a list frame and an area frame. NASS stratified the area frame based on agricultural intensity with strata. An additional sampling enhancement involved the grouping of municipalities with similar agriculture into nine clusters. Within each stratum and cluster, a random sample of PSUs was selected and then further subdivided into target sampling units called segments. During the pre-screening process, 589 NML farm operators were found in the 300 sampled area segments; however, only 295 of these original NML records were determined to be actual farm operators. Enumerators used aerial photos and municipal maps to identify all farm operators within each assigned area segment.
ii. Complete and/or sample enumeration methods
The CA 2012 was a complete enumeration. A report form was sent to farm operators on the census list (CML). This was supplemented by an area sample, which accounted for farms Not-on-the-Mail-List (NML). Of approximately 7 500 segments available for sampling, 300 segments were selected. All NML farms discovered within the 300 sampled segments were included in the area sample. This ensured that complete enumeration was achieved.
iii. Sample design
From the initial CML of 16 971 names and addresses stratified by size and type of farm, equal weighting was applied to responding farms and non-responding farms, computed by response homogeneity group (RHG). Records found to be undeliverable were excluded from the nonresponse calculations. Farms not included in the CML were sampled in an area frame.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Mail Questionnaire [mail]
Data Collection Notes
Data collection was accomplished primarily through the mail-out/mail-back method. The list was mailed with a census report form. Those that did not respond to this first report form received a second report form in the post. Enumerators from the DA and the Extension Service conducted a field follow-up, to visit and enumerate operations that did not respond by post. Farmers returned the completed form to the National Processing Centre (NPC) in Jeffersonville, IN, for processing.
One questionnaire (reporting form) was used for the CA 2012 covering the following topics:
- Land owned
- Land use
- Conservation programs and crop insurance
- Field crops
- Bananas, coffee, pineapples and plantain crops
- Hay and forage crops
- Nursery, Greenhouse, Floriculture, Sod and tree seedlings
- Vegetables and melons
- Hydroponic crops
- Root crops
- Cattle and calves
- Hogs and pigs
- Other animals and livestock products
- Value of sales
- Organic agriculture
- Federal and commonwealth agricultural program payments
- Income from farm-related sources
- Production expenses
- Farm labour
- Fertilizer and chemicals applied
- Market value of land and buildings
- Machinery, equipment and buildings
- Type of organization
- Operator characteristics
1. DATA PROCESSING AND ARCHIVING
The report forms returned were automatically checked in by scanning devices that identified each case referring to the barcode in the address label of the form. Data were retrieved from the returned forms using optical scanning. Missing data were supplied on the basis of similar farms and were assigned farm classification codes, which were necessary for tabulating the data. Data from each report were subjected to a detailed item-by-item computer edit.
2. CENSUS DATA QUALITY
The total sampling error was derived from the estimate of the NML component using an area frame and assumptions were used to allocate equal weights to respondents and non-respondents in the CML component. The NML and CML components were combined to provide a single estimate. The estimate reflects complete and unduplicated coverage, provided that nonresponse bias and non-sampling errors are not operative.
Departamento de Agricultura, Gobierno de Puerto Rico
Address: 1309 Fernando Juncos, PO Box 10163, Santurce, Puerto Rico 00908 -1163
Telephone: (+1) 7877220871
See also https://www.nass.usda.gov/About_NASS/Privacy/index.php
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses