The 2010 Census of Agriculture (CA) is the sixth to be conducted in the Republic of Cyprus since the country achieved independence. The previous CAs were undertaken in 1960, 1977, 1985, 1994 and 2003. The Survey on Agricultural Production Methods (SAPM) was carried out together with the CA 2010.
The Statistical Service of Cyprus (CYSTAT) has been conducting a Census of Agriculture over the last 40 years or so, at approximately 10-year intervals. The main objective of these censuses was to enumerate the whole population of agricultural holdings in the country and to collect data on various basic characteristics of each holding. This population then, formed the agricultural register and was used for drawing samples of various sample surveys which were carried out on an annual basis during the periods between census years. In 2003, a farm structure census was carried out in the country, which was based, for the first time, on the guidelines and relevant regulations of the EU regarding farm structure surveys. This was considered of utmost importance in the light of the fact that Cyprus was becoming a full member of the EU only a year later. For the purposes of carrying out the census, CYSTAT sought the assistance of the National Statistical Service of Greece (NSSG) and the experience accumulated during the cooperation of CYSTAT with the NSSG proved very valuable in preparing and conducting the farm structure surveys of 2005 and 2007.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the study includes:
Distribution of the utilized agricultural area of the holding
Manure storage and treatment facilities
Agriculture & Rural Development
Land (policy, resource management)
The statistical unit was the agricultural holding, defined as a technical-economic unit under single management that produces agricultural products. For the purposes of the 2010 CA, a unit of this type is considered a holding and is enumerated only if it meets predefined threshold criteria.
Producers and sponsors
Statistical Service of Cyprus (CYSTAT)
Cyprus National Budget
The FSS 2010 was intended for full coverage of the target population so that no sample needed to be drawn. This goal was achieved by dividing the total area of the country into two main parts:
urban and rural. In the case of rural areas, the survey was carried out from door to door, thereby guaranteeing an exhaustive coverage. All questionnaires completed in rural areas where also checked against the existing register mentioned above in order to identify and/or explain any changes in those holdings which were included on the register. Such checks were not possible, of course, in the case of new holdings for which no prior information was available. However, it must be pointed out that in the case of rural areas, all households were visited with the assistance of the community authorities and the local council. This ensured not only that all households were fully covered but also that the population in each village was encouraged by its local authorities to cooperate with the enumerators and to provide truthful information. In the case of urban areas this was not possible. The coverage in urban areas was based on the updated agricultural register. As mentioned above, the register of agricultural holders was created based on the census 2003, and was updated using FSS 2005 and 2007, other annual surveys and using information from a wide variety of sources.
(b) Survey design
The objective of the Census 2010 was to cover the population exhaustively. For this purpose the population was stratified by geographical area, that is, it was divided into two main strata: urban and rural areas. In the case of rural areas, exhaustiveness was achieved through the door to door process of data collection. In the case of urban areas, exhaustiveness was more difficult to achieve due to the fact that visits did not take place on a door to door basis. However, the large volume of information that was provided from the farm register assisted in minimizing the number of cases lost.
(c) Sampling strategy -for SAPM and/or OGA
As mentioned above, the sample was drawn using a stratified random sampling. According to the budget available to the Agricultural Sector of the Statistical Service of Cyprus, it was decided that the total sample size should be about 7.200 holdings from the total of 38.859 farms. More specifically the stratification and sampling procedure was based on the following steps:
1. At a first stage, a Standard Output for each holding was calculated using the standard output coefficients. These coefficients were applied on data collected by the Census on the utilized agricultural area of holdings and the number and kind of animals. These data were already available at the start of the SAPM survey since in May 2011, as the collection and data entry of the Census data had already been completed by April 2011.
2. At a second stage, all holdings were divided into 4 groups according to their Standard Output as follows: 0=SO=20.000, 20.000<SO=50.000, 50.000<SO=100.000 and SO>100.000. Then it was decided to take 1/7 from the first and second groups, 1/5 from the third group and 1/3 from the fourth group. At the end of the process, a sample was drawn comprising 7.146 holdings. Overall, the sample represented the 40% of total utilised agricultural area and the 47% of the total number of animals. More specifically, 46% of the 15 total area of cereals, 46% of the total area of potatoes, 52% of the total area of oilseed, 29% of the total area of permanent outdoor crops, 53% of the total area of vegetables, melons strawberries and flowers and 43% of the total area of temporary grass and permanent grassland were covered in the survey. Furthermore, 58% of total bovine population, 51% of total number of sheep and goats, 38% of total pig population and 47% of total poultry were also covered in the survey.
Since FSS and OGA were fully covered, sampling errors were not applicable. For SAPM 2010, the weights of each holding were estimated.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Two questionnaires were used for data collection:
1. one for the CA 2010
2. one for the SAPM
All 16 core items recommended in the WCA 2010 were collected through the CA 2010 and the SAPM, namely;
0001 Identification and location of agricultural holding
0002+ Legal status of agricultural holder
0003 Sex of agricultural holder
0004 Age of agricultural holder
0005 Household size
0006 Main purpose of production of the holding
0007 Area of holding according to land use types
0008 Total area of holding
0009 Land tenure types on the holding
0010 Presence of irrigation on the holding
0011 Types of temporary crops on the holding
0012 Types of permanent crops on the holding and whether in compact plantation
0013 Number of animals on the holding for each livestock type
0014 Presence of aquaculture on the holding
0015+ Presence of forest and other wooded land on the holding
0016 Other economic production activities of the holding's enterprise
(a) Methods for handling missing or incorrect data items
Follow-up interviews were carried out during the data collection process in those cases where the checking process suggested that these should be done. These checks were based on relevant information about each holding which was already available either from previous surveys of the Statistical Service or from the various registers and administrative sources which were used for the preparation of the register. After the completion of data collection, however, neither followup interviews took place nor imputations were made. It is also noted that the central checking unit remained active until the end of the data completion process. Its role was to check and correct any errors that arose during data entry and to obtain answers relating to the missing items. These errors which were made during the data entry process (typing errors) were easily corrected through the re-typing of the correct data. However, other errors were checked by this unlit mentioned earlier, by checking the data against the prior information available in the existing register and in many cases by contacting the holder again through the telephone. This was done by phone and the need for such corrections was minimal as the checking process described earlier had already taken care of these cases.
(b) Control of the data
Accurate and good quality data were set from the start as a primary objective of the survey. This goal could only be achieved if the collected data could efficiently and effectively be checked. For this purpose, a multilevel checking system of questionnaires was set up immediately after data collection commenced. Detailed infomration are in the external materials.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Coverage and other non sampling errors were minimized during the multi-stage checking process that took place con-currently with data collection and data entry. In the case of rural areas, the target population was fully covered through door-to-door visits so that there no issue of over or under coverage. In the case of urban areas, coverage was limited to visits to holders who appeared in the register. This implies that there could be no over-coverage. However, from the initial entries of the register, about 870 cases were not possible to be covered leading to a small under-coverage of 4%. Coverage errors are taken into account for purposes of up-dating the farm register in those cases that the cause of the errors is fully clarified. The non-response rate for the Census 2010 is estimated to be 1,8%.
Statistical Service of Cyprus
Address: Michael Karaoli Street, 1444 Nicosia, Cyprus
Telephone: (+357) 22605124
See also https://www.mof.gov.cy/mof/cystat/statistics.nsf/disclaimer_en/disclaimer_en?OpenDocument
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses