India participated in the World Programme for the Census of Agriculture (WCA) 1930, 1950 and 1960 through sample surveys carried out by the Directorate of National Sample Surveys. The 1970/1971 Census is considered the first comprehensive agricultural census (AC) to be conducted in the country. Quinquennial ACs were successively undertaken in 1976/1977, 1980/1981, 1985/1986, 1990/1991, 1995/1996, 2000/2001 and 2005/2006. The ninth census in the series is the 2010/2011 AC, to which the metadata review and data presented here refer.
Agriculture plays an important role in India's economy. It provides gainful employment to a large section of population of the country, particularly, the rural population. It contributes to the socio-cultural development of the farming community. The land holding provides them the confidence and strength to stay and survive in the society. In view of the importance of agriculture, Government of India has been conducting comprehensive Agriculture Censuses for collection of data on structure and characteristics of agricultural holdings, as part of World Census of Agriculture Programme since 1970-71. Operational
holding, being the basic unit of decision-making in agriculture, detailed data on structure of agricultural holdings and its characteristics are necessary for formulation of any meaningful and effective strategy for agricultural development.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the study includes:
- List of households
- List of Institutional Holdings
- Village Summary
- Agricultural Infrastructure and other information
- Dispersal of Operated Area
- Area operated by tenancy status
- Number of Wells and Tubewells
- Net area irrigated by source
- Cropwise Area
Agriculture & Rural Development
Land (policy, resource management)
The statistical unit was the operational holding, defined as an entity comprising all land that is used wholly or partly for agricultural production and is operated as one technical unit by one person alone or with others, without regard to the title, legal form, size or location. A technical unit was defined as the unit that is under the same management and has the same means of production, such as labour force, machinery, animals, credit, etc. The operated area includes both cultivated and uncultivated area, provided that a part of it is put to agricultural production during the reference period.
Producers and sponsors
Department of Agriculture and Cooperation & Farmers' Welfare
Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers' Welfare
Gorvernment of India
(a) Sampling design
For the collection of data in the Agriculture Census, an approach of Census-cum-sample survey has been adopted. Various States in the country have been grouped in to two categories i.e. land record States and non-land record States. Those States where comprehensive land records are maintained giving information on land and its utilization, cropping pattern etc are called land record States and those States where such information is not maintained in the form of land-records are called nonland record States. In land record States data on Agriculture Census is pooled for all the parcels of an operational holding irrespective of its location. However, for operational convenience the outer limit for pooling is restricted to taluka. This pooling is done for each operational holder in the village of his residence. In the non-land record States the data is collected through sample survey following household enquiry approach in 20% of villages in each block. In these selected villages, all the operational holdings are enumerated following household enquiry approach.Thus in land record States no sampling is resorted to for data collection for the number and area of operational holdings and in nonland record States sampling of villages in each block/taluka is resorted to
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Three questionnaires were used, one for each of the three phases of the census:
· Phase I questionnaire, for collecting data on number and area of operational holdings, according to the prescribed size classes2 for different social groups,3 types of holdings' and gender.
· Phase II questionnaire, for collecting data on:
(i) dispersal of holdings;
(ii) tenancy and terms of leasing;
(iii) land utilization;
(iv) irrigation status and source-wise area irrigated;
(v) cropping pattern
· Phase III questionnaire, for collecting additional data.
The AC 2011 questionnaires covered 12 items of the 16 core items recommended for the WCA 2010 round. The exceptions were:
(i) "Presence of aquaculture on the holding"
(ii) "Other economic production activities of the holding's enterprise"
(iii) "Number of animals on the holding for each livestock type"
(iv) "Presence of forests and other woodland on the holding"
See questionnaire in external materials.
(a) DATA PROCESSING AND ARCHIVING
In-house software was developed for data entry and processing of census data. Data entry, data validation and error correction, the generation of trial tables, and the generation of final tables and their examination by states or UTs took place according to the three phases of the census. All questionnaires were manually scrutinized by the statistical staff before they were submitted for data entry. Data are archived at tehsil level and are available in the public domain. The data entry and processing software included checks of census data for inconsistencies and mismatch.
Census data are compiled at the national and tehsil level. The All India Report of Agriculture Census 2010-2011 is based on the data collected during Phase-II of the Census. The detailed data of AC 2010/2011 results are available on the website of the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers' Welfare.
Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare
Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare,
Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare
Address: Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi 110 001, India
Telephone: (+91) (0)11 23383772
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses