The first census of agriculture (CA) to be conducted in Nepal was the CA 1961/1962, followed by the decennial CAs held in 1971/1972, 1981/1982, 1991/1992 and 2001/2002.1 The sixth CA,2 to which the metadata review and data presented here refers, was the 2011/2012 CA.
National Census of Agriculture 2011/12, the sixth of its kind in Nepal is one among the large scale statistical operations of the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). CBS while undertaking statistical operations usually attempts to follow international recommendations and fulfil also national needs. The overall design of the National Census of Agriculture 2011/12 has followed recommendations of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. The sampling frame used for the agriculture census is basically derived from the household schedule of the National Population and Housing Census 2011 which contains information on about the holdings of agricultural land and livestock and, is virtually a livestock census as well. The main objective of the census is to provide detail information about the structure of the agricultural system of Nepal. Nevertheless, It has attempted to capture the production of the major crops for the first time.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the study is agriculture (including forestry), access to finance, land use and infrastructure.
Agriculture & Rural Development
Land (policy, resource management)
Food (production, crisis)
Forests & Forestry
Access to Finance
Community Driven Development
The statistical unit was the agricultural holding,3 defined as an economic unit of agricultural production under single management comprising all livestock (including poultry) kept, and all land used wholly or partly for agricultural production purposes, and with a physical sized answering to specific threshold criteria:
A holding was considered to be an agricultural unit only if it satisfied one of the following thresholds: (i) having area under crops greater than or equal to a quarter of a ropani or four anna (0.01272 ha) in the hill or mountain district, or greater than or equal to eight Dhur (0.01355 ha) in the terai; (ii) keeping one or more head of cattle or buffaloes; (iii) keeping five or more head of sheep or goats; or (iv) keeping 20 or more poultry. Small agricultural operations below these thresholds were excluded from the CA.
Only agricultural holdings in the household sector were included in the CA.
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS)
Crops and Livestock Census and Survey Section
Economic Statistics Division (CBS)
Food and Agriculture Organization
Asian Development Bank
(a) Sampling design
The sampling design followed in the agricultural census was a stratified two stage sampling with district as strata, enumeration areas as first stage units and agricultural holdings as second stage units. In the first stage, selection was done using probability proportional to size (number of holdings) systematic sampling (PPS systematic). Selection of agricultural households at the second stage was done using equal probability systematic sampling.
(b) Sampling frame
The sampling frame for the first stage selection was based on the information collected in the 2011 population census. The 2011 census had a set of questions on agriculture. This information was used in identifying the households with agricultural activities including livestock and poultry keeping. A list of all agricultural households with operated land area and number of livestock and poultry raised was then compiled. The lists were then aggregated to form a list of wards. Enumeration area(EA) unit for the first stage selection was either a ward or a sub-ward or a combination of wards. A small ward was grouped with one or more neighboring ward(s) of the same village development committee (VDC), so that the combined total exceeded 25 agricultural households. In the case of very large wards, segmentation was done to form sizable first stage sampling units. The information on holding numbers was used as the measure of size for the PPS sample selection of EAs for inclusion in the census.
(c) Selection of samples
The first stage of sample selection involved the primary sampling units (PSUs), where sample enumeration areas (EAs) were selected with probability proportional to size (PPS), with power allocation 0.4. The measure of size is the number of holdings enumerated in the EAs during the Census of Population 2011 listing operations and to measure the importance of each district, the total area under 8 major crops (paddy, wheat, maize, millet, barley, sugarcane, oilseed and potato) was determined. The second stage of sample selection involved the selection of sample holdings systematically in each sample EA. Before the sample selection was done, a listing of holdings in each sample PSU was conducted to update the listing during the Population Census. The target number of holdings for enumeration in each sample EA was 25. Approximately 5,200 enumeration areas were selected in the 74 districts and about 130,000 agricultural holdings were selected for enumeration. One district was completely covered in the second phase of the census of agriculture because of the few number of enumeration areas and holdings. This is the district of Manang.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Only one questionnaire was used for holding-level data collection in the CA 2011/2012. A questionnaire was also used for the community survey conducted jointly with the census.
(a) Household Questionnaire
Part 1: Information on Holder and respondent
Part 2: General Information
Part 3: Description of Pupulation
Part 4: Description for Land and Water
Part 5: Crops
Part 6: Livestock and Poultry
Part 7: Agriculture Machinery by Source and Use
Part 8: Non-Residential Building
Part 9 : Forest and Fishery
Part 10 : Agricultural Loan
Part 11: Miscellaneous
(b) Community Questionnaire
Information on Enumeration
1. Land used and Other Information of the ward
2. Social and Economic Situation of the ward
3. Community Structure and Facilitiy of the ward
4.On going Development Program in the ward
All 16 core items recommended to be collected in the WCA 2010 were covered in the CA. See questionnaire in external materials tab.
Processing of census data:
The processing of the census was undertaken on micro-computers and involved computer systems tor data entry, editing and tabulation. The computer systems were developed using SPSS. On receipt of the questionnaires from the field, CBS staff first inspected them to ensure that no questionnaires were missing, that all required questions were answered and that responses were clearly marked. No office coding was necessary as all coding was done during enumeration. However, questionnaires were checked thoroughly for any missing. Data entry was done within the CBS using the Bureau’s staff a few other temporarily hired persons. The data entry and other programmes were developed by the CBS. Data entry was completed in two months by 35 persons. Payment for the job was done on a key-stroke basis
Random checks were made to ensure the quality of data entry work. For this, around 5 percent of the questionnaires were randomly selected, data re-entry and then matching was done. A computer system was developed to perform a series of consistency, plausibility, range and other checks on the data. The edit program provided for interactive editing; the program applied each edit check to a questionnaire and
immediately identified on the screen data failing the edit checks. Edit failures were examined and corrections were immediately entered into the computer as required.
Estimates of Sampling Error
See external document
Once data for a district had been edited and amended, the data were aggregated and weighted to produce district level tables. District tables were aggregated to produce tables for each development region and ecological bell, and finally at the national level. A set of tables was also produced showing district comparisons.
Agriculture and Livestock Census and Survey Section,
Central Bureau of Statistics
Address: Thapathali, Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
Telephone: (+977) 1 4229406
See also https://cbs.gov.np/
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses