The first All-Russian Agricultural Census was conducted by the Russian Empire in 1916, and the next in 1917. The last large-scale census was conducted in Russia in the Soviet period in 1920. The 2006 All-Russia Census of Agriculture (CA) was the first comprehensive agricultural census conducted in the country, in line with the 2010 WCA recommendations.
The last such large-scale measure was organized in 1920. Later efforts to that effect, undertaken on a regular basis, were targeted agricultural censuses, such as censuses of acreage under farm crops, of fruit plantations and vineyards on farms of all categories, and of household livestock, to name but a few. But virtually all of them were taken before the launch of market reforms in the agricultural sector. In recent years, the agricultural sector in our country has undergone a large-scale restructuring. It involves improvements in the land law, establishment of mixed economy, resurgence of private sector and demerging of agricultural enterprises. The major producers in the agricultural sector before the '90s of the last century were large agricultural enterprises, which accounted for three-quarters of output. Later on, their share went down, to average some 40% across Russia to date, with the family farms claiming more than a half of the total output of agricultural produce. There has come into being a new category of producers: private farms, which account for over 6% of agricultural output. With new economic relations on the rise, the system of statistical surveys of the agricultural sector was overhauled. The ongoing monitoring approach, traditionally used by the government statistical service, became inadequate for a number of external reasons, not least because of its high cost. The Russian agricultural statistics put together a system of sample surveys, which have been used in organizing government statistical monitoring of the agricultural activities of family farms and private farmers for 10 years now. International experience shows that statistical sampling fails unless the agricultural surveys list frames are updated. This being the case, the new economic conditions made it imperative to take the All-Russian Agricultural Census.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
The census programme monitored the following indicators:
1) general description of census respondent;
2) human resources and employment in the agricultural sector;
3) land resources;
4) the acreage under crops and perennial plantations;
5) livestock number;
6) machines and equipment, buildings and others facilities;
7) types of farming activities
Agriculture & Rural Development
Land (policy, resource management)
Statistical unit. The enumeration unit for the CA 2006 was defined as "a legal or natural person that owns, uses or rents land designated or used for agricultural production, or possesses livestock.
Producers and sponsors
Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat)
The creation of the census frame (lists of enumeration units) was a major pre-census activity. The sources of the list were: the Statistical Business Register of Rosstat, the State Land Register maintained by the Real Estate Agency of Russian Federation, the Household Books (Registers) in the village administrations, the State Register of Real Estate Rights and Transactions, records of the Technical Inventory Bureaus, records of the Federal Veterinary and Phytosanitary Surveillance Service, records from the bodies of the State Technical Supervision Service, the State Register of Urban Development and the lists of households in the urban settlements compiled for the 2002 Census of Population. A combination of complete enumeration and sampling was adopted for data collection:
- complete enumeration covered agricultural enterprises, private farms, individual entrepreneurs, horticultural, kitchen-garden, livestock-growing and dacha non-profit associations, households in rural settlements, households in cities and urban settlements with less than 500 households;
- sample enumeration covered cities and urban settlements with more than 500 households, as well as operated plots of horticultural, kitchen-garden, livestock-growing or dacha non-profit associations.
Note: The sampling rate depended on the total number of operated plots in the association: 100 percent for less than ten plots, 50 percent for 10 to 99 plots, 25 percent for 100 to 199 plots, 20 percent for 200 to 299 plots, 15 percent for 300 to 499 plots, and 10 percent for more than 500 plots.
In urban settlements with more than 500 households, those with livestock and/or large land areas (the threshold being established individually for each urban settlement) were singled out into a separate stratum and enumerated completely. For the remaining households, a 20 percent simple random sample was used.
To obtain more detailed information for horticultural, kitchen-garden, livestock-growing or dacha non-profit associations, within each of them, a systematic random sample was selected from the list of operated plots, and each selected plot was enumerated using the annex of the corresponding questionnaire.'
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Representatives of agricultural enterprises were given the paper questionnaires during the instruction seminars organized for them and the completed questionnaires were sent back by post to the territorial statistical office (self-interviewing method). Face-to face interviews with paper questionnaires were conducted for the remaining census units (PAPI method).
For subsidiary holdings of non-agricultural organizations, the following minimum size limits were applied: more than 1 ha of sown area of agricultural crops; not having agricultural crops, but having more than ten head of livestock, more than three head of cows, more than 20 head of pigs, more than 15 head of sheep and goats, more than 30 head of poultry, or more than three head of horses. For the households engaged in agricultural production, a threshold of 4 acres (0.04 ha) was established.
Four questionnaires were used to collect information, one for each category of enumeration units. The AC 2006 census questionnaire covered 14 of the 16 core items recommended for the WCA 2010 round, namely;
0001 Identification and location of agricultural holding
0002+ Legal status of agricultural holder
0003 Sex of agricultural holder
0004 Age of agricultural holder
0005 Household size
0006 Main purpose of production of the holding
0007 Area of holding according to land use types
0008 Total area of holding
0009 Land tenure types on the holding
0010 Presence of irrigation on the holding
0011 Types of temporary crops on the holding
0012 Types of permanent crops on the holding and whether in compact plantation
0013 Number of animals on the holding for each livestock type
0014 Presence of aquaculture on the holding
0015+ Presence of forest and other wooded land on the holding
0016 Other economic production activities of the holding's enterprise
The exceptions were the following items:
(i) "Household size"
(ii) "Presence of forest and other wood land on the holding"
The computerized system for the processing of the All-Russian Agricultural Census data covers the regional and federal levels. The regional level is a network of regional information-processing centres based at Rosstat regional offices equipped with hardware and software facilities. This level had the following responsibilities:
1) to input data from machine-readable documents;
2) to perform optical characters recognition on machine-readable documents;
3) to proof-read machine-readable documents after OCR;
4) to make sure that the packages have the blank forms required;
5) to assign reference numbers to the input data;
6) to check the information for technical and logical faults;
7) to save the information onto external media.
A great deal of emphasis was placed on data quality throughout the exercise from, planning, questionnaire design, training, supervision, data entry and editing, to validation and analysis. A comprehensive mechanism for the monitoring and supervision of fieldwork was established. It included supervision of fieldwork at the level of instruction areas and at different subnational levels, regular reporting and analysis of response rates during data collection, field checks, etc.
At the regional level the following main tasks were carried out: (i) scanning of census forms; (H) checking full coverage of census units.
Agriculture and Environment Statistics Department,
Federal State Statistics Service
Address: 39 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow 107450, Russian Federation.
Telephone: (+495) 6074902
See also https://eng.gks.ru/folder/82825
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses