The first agricultural census (AC) was conducted in Hungary in 1895, followed by the second one in 1935. Starting from 1972, ACs were conducted regularly, in line with the ten-year rounds of the WCA, in 1972, 1981, 1991, 2000 and 2010. The AC 2010 was carried out together with the SAPM.
The Agricultural Census 2010 (FSS 2010) was implemented by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (HCSO) between 1 and 21 June 2010 with the reference date of 1st June. The main objectives of the census were to provide the necessary information for the elaboration of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), to follow the structural changes in the Hungarian agriculture since the Agricultural Census 2000 (AC 2000) as well as to meet the domestic information needs coming from Hungarian policy makers. The census provides an overall and exact view on the Hungarian agriculture and it determines agricultural statistics over the next 10 years as it serves as a basis updating the farm register. From 2000 the implementation of the agricultural census is regulated by an Act, thus the Act XXIV of 2010 on the AC provides the regulatory framework for the implementation of the FSS 2010. The annual data collection system is included in the National Program of Statistical Data Collection (NPSDC) approved each year in a Government Decree. In 2010 certain regular surveys on land area and sown area (May) as well as on livestock (June) were not carried out, questions related to these surveys were corporated into the FSS 2010 questionnaire.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
The census scope covered agricultural activities related to the production of crop and livestock products, as well as to agricultural services provided bythe holdings.
Agriculture & Rural Development
Forests & Forestry
Food (production, crisis)
Land (policy, resource management)
The statistical unit was the agricultural holding, defined as a single unit, both technically and economically, which has a single management and which undertakes agricultural activities listed in Annex I to the European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) No. 1166/2008 within the economic territory of the EU, as either its primary or secondary activity. Two main types of agricultural holding were distinguished: "private holdings" and "agricultural enterprises".
Producers and sponsors
Hungarian Central Statistical Office (HCSO)
For elaboration of the list of the survey units the basic source was the addresses of the Farm Register (FR). Agricultural enterprises operated in 2010 formed the census frame. Between the AC 2000 and the AC 2010, the FR of private holdings was updated only partially based on the information of the Census of Vineyards and Fruit Plantations 2001, FSSs (2003, 2005 and 2007) and regular annual sample surveys. In the preparation phase of the AC 2010, the FR was completed with information from administrative data sources.
b. Complete and/or sample enumeration methods
The AC 2010 was a complete enumeration of agricultural holdings. The SAPM was implemented using sampling for private holdings and complete enumeration for agricultural enterprises.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The data collection for private holdings was carried out using face-to-face interviews, while for the agricultural enterprises, the data collection was accomplished using self-interviewing, by reporting to the HCSO through the post. The HCSO used some administrative data as a source of census data.
Two types of questionnaires were designed for the implementation of the AC:
(i) for private holdings, in two formats: with SAPM questions and without SAPM questions; and
(ii) for agricultural enterprises, including SAPM questions.
While the content was the same, there were differences in the order of the questions. All questionnaires were printed on paper and also made available on the Internet in Excel format. The census questionnaires covered all 16 core items recommended in the WCA 2010 i.e.
0001 Identification and location of agricultural holding
0002+ Legal status of agricultural holder
0003 Sex of agricultural holder
0004 Age of agricultural holder
0005 Household size
0006 Main purpose of production of the holding
0007 Area of holding according to land use types
0008 Total area of holding
0009 Land tenure types on the holding
0010 Presence of irrigation on the holding
0011 Types of temporary crops on the holding
0012 Types of permanent crops on the holding and whether in compact plantation
0013 Number of animals on the holding for each livestock type
0014 Presence of aquaculture on the holding
0015+ Presence of forest and other wooded land on the holding
0016 Other economic production activities of the holding's enterprise
a. DATA PROCESSING AND ARCHIVING
All data entry applications related to the AC were developed by the IT Department of the HCSO within the framework of the Data Entry and Validation System, run by the HCSO. The staff of the directorates and the Central Office were responsible for data entry. Logical and arithmetical coherency within and between tables were incorporated into the data entry programme. Data were entered and stored in an Oracle database.
b. CENSUS DATA QUALITY
A pilot survey was carried out before starting census activities for testing census tools. Key validation rules were incorporated into the data entry application, the micro and macro data were analysed thoroughly, and compared with other available agriculture statistics. The survey results met the quality requirements stated in the related EU regulation.
The preliminary data were released at a press conference in December 2010. More detailed preliminary data were published in September 2011. The final data were published in several volumes in 2012. The census information is available in English on the HCSO website.
Hungarian Central Statistical Office,
Sectoral Statistics Department
Keleti Karoly Str. 5-7. Hungary / H-1525
Telephone: (+36) 1 3456915
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses