The first census of agriculture (CA) in Vanuatu was conducted in 1983, and the second in 1993. The third CA, to which the metadata review and data presented here refer, was undertaken in 2007.
The Agriculture Census is envisioned with the following objectives:
- To provide data on the structure of agriculture as well as forestry and fisheries in Vanuatu;
- To provide data that will be used as benchmark for current agricultural statistics; and
- To provide sampling frame for surveys on agriculture (crops and livestock), fisheries and forestry.
Specifically, the Agriculture Census Phase II aims:
- To determine the structure and characteristics of the agricultural activities of the households in Vanuatu such as crop gardening, coconut/cocoa/ coffee/kava/vanilla/pepper farming, tending of cattle and other livestock activities, forestry-related activities and fishing operations;
- To determine the number and distribution of household engaged in crop gardening, coconut/cocoa/coffee/kava/vanilla/pepper farming, tending of cattle and other livestock activities, forestry-related activities
and fishing operations at the island level; and
- To provide data on the farm/holding/sub-holding area, quantity of the crops grown/sold, number of cattle and other livestock kept as of the day of enumeration, quantity of fisheries species gathered/caught, etc
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
• structure and characteristics of agricultural activities of households in Vanuatu
• number and distribution of household engaged in agriculture
• general characteristics of the household agricultural activities – type of agricultural activities; type of management; number of households members mainly responsible for agricultural activities in the last twelve months.
• Characteristics of members of the household engaged in agricultural activities - relation to head; age; sex;highest education; involvement and average hours worked per week in agricultural activities. number of hired workers and average hours worked per day per person
Agriculture & Rural Development
Forests & Forestry
Food (production, crisis)
Land (policy, resource management)
The statistical unit was the agricultural holding (farm), defined as any economic unit of agricultural production (such as a garden or temporary and/or permanent crops or cattle raising, cocoa/coffee/kava/vanilla/pepper area/plantation) under single management, comprising all livestock kept and all land wholly or partly used for agricultural production purposes, without regard to title, legal form or size. Information on agricultural holdings was collected according to their legal status.
Producers and sponsors
Vanuatu National Statistics Office
Statistics and Demography Program
South Pacific Community
Food Agriculture Organisation
Nirmana Pty Ltd
Private Consulation Agency
Data Analysis & Report Writing
New Zealand Aid Agency
Australian Aid Agency
Food and Agriculture Organisation
The 18 major islands were classified as:
• small – number of households engaged in agricultural activities less than 500 (Torres, Paama, Erromango, Aniwa, Aneityum and Futuna);
• medium – number of households engaged in agricultural activities 500-1,999 (Banks, Malo, Maewo, Ambrym, Epi and Shepherds); and
• large – number of households operating agricultural activities 2,000 or more (Efate, Malekula, Ambae, Pentecost and Tanna).
In determining the number of households to be interviewed in each island and in each enumeration area (EA):
- for small islands, all households were listed and the identified households engaged in agricultural activities were enumerated;
- for medium-sized islands, one-third of the sample EAs in these islands were selected and all households were listed and those found to be engaged in agricultural activities were interviewed; and
- for large islands, one-third of the total EAs were selected in each island and all households listed. Of households found to have a crop garden, coconut sub-holding or kava sub-holding, one-third were selected to be further interviewed. In addition, all households listed and involved in the subholding of cattle and cash crops like cocoa, coffee (for Tanna only), vanilla and pepper (10 or more plants) were also enumerated.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Data were collected through face-to-face interviews by means of the PAPI method. During Phase 1 (May-June 2006), the enumerators listed every household in Vanuatu and recorded all agricultural activities
undertaken by the sampled households. In Phase 2 (August-September 2007), enumerators were hired again and trained to collect census data from households. Regular staff and census supervisors collected information for the commercial farms and holdings
Two types of questionnaires were used: one for listing the households (Phase 1) and one for data collection (Phase 2). Separate questionnaires were provided for different agricultural activities (nine questionnaires in total). Only one of the 16 core items recommended by FAO for the WCA 2010 was not covered by the CA 2007.
Phase I: Census Listing
Phase II: Surveys
Form 1.1 - Household
Form 1.2 - Crop Garden
Form 1.2A - Gardener's Form
Form 1.3 - Kava
Form 1.4 - Coconut
Form 2 - Cocoa
Form 3 - Coffee
Form 4 - Vanilla
Form 5 - Pepper
Form 6 - Cattle
Form 7 - Commercial Farm
Form A - List of Activities
Form B1 - Control Sheet for all small and medium sized islands
Form B2 - Control Sheet for Santo, Pentecost and Ambae
Form B3 - Control Sheet for Ambrym and Malekula
Form B4 - Control Sheet for Efate and Tanna
Eight data entry operators were hired by the project to do the data encoding of the Phase I of the project. This was the first-hands on as far as the software is concerned for all the data entry operators. Before the actual data entry, the data processing expert had all eight operators plus the supervisors on a training session for a few days. At the end of the training session, they were familiar with the software and then started the actual data encoding. The processing of data for Phase I of the project took the entire month of June 2006 to be completed. During the Phase II of the project, the expert set up the system and trained the local staff on system operation for two weeks and then left for his home country. Since the project staff and the data entry operators who were hired were already familiar with CsPro, the whole data processing was done without the presence of the consultant. The expert later came for his final mission to prepare the data for tabulation and generate the required tables using the table specifications for that purpose. The machine data processing of the forms was done using CsPro. Data encoding, data cleaning and tabulation were done using data entry, batch edit and cross tab applications respectively. Control and management of the data entry of the forms and data cleaning of the batch files were done using SCIPS (Survey / Census Integrated Processing System), a Visual Basic 6 (VB6) program developed by the expert designed to integrate the different phases of data capture and data cleaning of any survey/census. The program facilitates the assignment of folios to keyers that resulted to automatic recording of the data capture status of each batch/folio and eliminated errors in the encoding of the geographic identification codes. It also made the data cleaning easier since SCIPS enabled the users to correct errors found by the data consistency and completeness check programs without printing the generated error list.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The number of households to be interviewed is based on the sampling methodology that is used in the census. The 15 major islands were classified as:
1. small - if the number of households engaged in agricultural activities is less than 500; in this case, Torres, Paama and Erromango are under this category.
2. medium - if the number of households engaged in agricultural activities is between 500 - 1,999; Banks, Malo, Maewo, Ambrym, Epi and Shepherds belong to this group.
3. large - if the number of households operating agricultural activities is 2,000 or more; Santo, Efate, Malekula, Ambae, Pentecost and Tanna were considered to be large islands.
In selecting the number of households to be interviewed in each island, the following was carried out:
a. For Erromango, Torres and Paama, all households were listed and those households engaged in agricultural activities were enumerated;
b. For Banks, Malo, Maewo, Ambrym, Epi and Shepherds, 1/3 of the sample EAs in these islands were selected and all households were listed and those engaged in agricultural activities were interviewed for their involvement in these activities; and
c. For Santo, Efate, Malekula, Ambae, Pentecost and Tanna, 1/3 of the total EAs were also selected in each island and all households were listed in these islands, after which only 1/3 of the households engaged in agricultural activities were further interviewed if they were involved in crop garden, coconut sub-holding and kava sub-holding. In addition to this, all households in the selected EAs of these islands that were involved in the sub-holding of cattle and cash crops (with 10 trees or more) like cocoa, coffee (for Tanna only), vanilla and pepper were enumerated.
The CA 2007 data were disseminated through a printed publication, which included the final census results. The results were also published on institution's website.
Vanuatu National Statistics Office
Address: Port Vila, PMB 9019, Vanuatu
Telephone: (+678) 22110 / 22111
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses