The first Census of Agriculture (CA) in the Kingdom of Eswatini was conducted in 1971/1972, followed by CAs carried out in 1983/1984, in 1992/1993, and in 2002/2003. The fifth CA was conducted in 2012/2013.
In the past, the census of agriculture has aimed to provide data on the structure of agricultural holdings, with attention given to providing data for small administrative units and other detailed cross-tabulations of structural characteristics. Agricultural censuses have also been used to provide benchmarks to improve current crop and livestock statistics and to provide sampling frames for agricultural sample surveys. Previous agricultural censuses have focused on the activities of agricultural production units; that is, households or other units operating land or keeping livestock. They have not been seen as censuses of rural households.
This census is conducted to collect data needed by the government to make sound planning concerning the production of the agricultural produce.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the CA 2012/2013 covered crop and livestock production activities, as well as forestry and fisheries activities. Nevertheless, units engaged in forestry or fisheries were not covered unless they also performed some crop or livestock production activities. A community survey was conducted along with the census.
Agriculture & Rural Development
Forests & Forestry
Food (production, crisis)
Land (policy, resource management)
The agricultural holding is the enumeration unit, "comprising all land used and all livestock kept wholly or partly for agricultural production purposes. An individual or household may exercise management, jointly by two or more individuals or households, or by a juridical person such as a corporation, cooperative or government agency". The CA 2012/2013 covered the holdings in the household and the non-household sectors.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Office (CSO)
The Government of Eswatini
Enumeration area (EA):
The 2012/13 Agricultural Census uses the maps of the previous population census enumeration areas (EAs). These maps divide the rural areas into E.A's. Identifying boundary features on land are roads, mountain ranges, and railway lines, etc. This was used to form EA boundaries. Each EA consists of a number of homesteads. For the purpose of agricultural census, these E.A's are verified. Normally in the agricultural census, an enumerator is assigned, at most, two E.A's or more. The EA is used as Primary Sampling Unit (PSU). The CA was a combination of: (i) a complete enumeration for certain items (in the first phase) and (ii) a sample enumeration of holdings for the items related to area and yield measurements and "general agricultural enquiries" (in the second phase). The census frame was built based on the EAs established for the Population and Housing Census (PHC) 2007.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The face-to-face interviewing method using a paper questionnaire (PAPI method) was applied.
One questionnaire with different modules was used for the holdings. Of the 16 core items required by the WCA 2010, the CA questionnaire covered 13 items.
(a) Holding location.
(b) Legal status of holder.
(c) Purpose of production.
(d) Integration of holding with enterprises engaged in other economic activity (ies).
(e) Basic demographic characteristics of holder and household.
(f) Inventory of production factors:
- Source of manpower used on the holding (family workers, hired agricultural workers);
- Number and area of land parcels;
- Area by land use;
- Area harvested, by crop;
- Number of cultivated trees by crop;
- Number of livestock by type;
- Type of machinery and equipment used;
- Number of forest trees on the holding;
- Agricultural buildings;
(g) Tenure arrangements for production factors:
- Land tenure;
- Source of machinery and equipment used;
(h) Other features:
- Shifting cultivation;
- Use of irrigation;
- High variety seeds;
(i) Fishery or forestry activities if carried out on a holding;
(j) Livestock system.
a. DATA PROCESSING AND ARCHIVING
Manual data entry and editing (such as range and consistency edits, and imputations) were done using CSPro software. Tables were generated and edited using, respectively, CSPro and Microsoft Excel.
b. CENSUS DATA QUALITY
The fieldwork was organized in several phases, to ensure the quality of the data collected. An enumerator was responsible for data collection in three EAs established for the PHC 2007, according to an adjusted workload. S/he was part of a team of ten enumerators, supervised by a field supervisor, who checked the coherence and quality of each filled questionnaire.
Dissemination workshops were organized to release the census results. At the time of publication, the CA report with the final results had not yet been released.
Central Statistical Office
Address: Ministerial Office Building, off Mhlambanyatsi Road, Mbabane, the Kingdom of Eswatini
Telephone: (+268) 24042151
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses