Pastoralists-driven Data Management System in Mongolia, 2018-2019.
Agricultural Survey [ag/oth]
This is part of a global project on Pastoralist-driven Data Management Systems. Similar studies were also conducted in Chad and Argentina.
Basic information is lacking about many pastoralist areas in the world. As a result, many services, programmes and policies do not effectively address the needs of pastoralist communities. The Government Cooperative Programme (GCP) project GCP/GLO/779/IF “Pastoralists-driven Data Management System”, was based on the idea that pastoralist associations could themselves collect, manage and share data from among their communities. This information could then be used to advocate for better targeted and pastoralist-friendly policies at local, national and international level. The project aimed at strengthening the capacities of pastoral organizations in data collection, analysis and information management, in order to facilitate evidence-based policy decision-making. It was implemented in Argentina, Chad and Mongolia, managed by the Pastoralist Knowledge Hub (PKH), and supported by the Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (Agricultural Research Centre for International Development [CIRAD]).
In Mongolia, the project was implemented by the National Federation of Pastoralist User Groups. An innovative approach for collecting data was developed through close partnership among the stakeholders involved, and was adopted during two successive surveys. The two questionnaires for collecting data on pastoralism were discussed and adapted to the national context, through the contribution of the participants and their deep knowledge of the field. This was one of the most innovative and successful aspects of the project, i.e. the pertinence of the method, as a result of the proactive involvement of the beneficiaries. The first survey, which aimed to identify and describe the pastoralist population, gathered information on 112,957 households. The second survey, which was more in-depth and aimed to assess the pastoralist economy and its contribution to the national economies, was conducted on a sample (based on the results of the first survey) of 1,938 households. As well as demonstrating that pastoralist organizations had the potential to successfully manage data, the surveys revealed the actual contribution of pastoralism to the economy of the country. In particular, they showed that pastoralism contributed to the national economy more than studies usually indicated, as, owing to specific characteristics, such as high levels of self-consumption, pastoralists' contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was often underestimated . During the project, it emerged that pastoralism could contribute up to 12 percent to the GDP of Mongolia.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The survey was conducted in two stages. The description of scope for the first stage includes the identification and description of pastoral households. The second survey was conducted on a sample of the pastoralist population, as estimated based on the previous survey. The aim was to gather information on the pastoralist economy and on the contribution of pastoralism to the national GDP.
Producers and sponsors
National Federation of Pastoralist User Groups
Pastoralist Knowledge Hub
Food and Agriculture Organization
Agricultural Research Centre for International Development
Technical assistance in methodology and data analysis
Pastoralist Knowledge Hub
Food and Agriculture Organization
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry
Government of Mongolia
Technical assistance in data collection
International Fund for Agricultural Development
The first survey, which aimed to identify and describe the pastoralist population, gathered information on 112,957 households in Mongolia, from different aimags.
With regard to the second survey, 1,938 pastoralist households from the 18 aimags were targeted, based on statistical requirements, as advised by CIRAD. To select the sample households, the NFPUG used maps created from the Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected through the first survey. The sample was made up of four different groups/types of households, based on their animal numbers. This survey involved a smaller number of collectors, only the aimag and sum leaders were involved, and the former gave paper-based questionnaires to the latter, to gather data from after the completed interviews and enter into the Open Foris Collect server. Each collector interviewed 10-15 households, and no more than one per day in areas such as the Gobi Desert, where households lived far apart.
Deviations from the Sample Design
For the first survey, out of the 159,219 targeted households at the beginning, 112,957 interviews were completed.
Sample weights were calculated for each of the data files.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Face-to-face paper [f2f]
The surveys were conducted by the pastoralist organizations themselves. Each of them relied on a highly variable number of enumerators (from 10 to more than one thousand), and on one or more supervisors validating the collected data. The enumerators were selected by the organizations based on their information technology (IT) skills, level of education, availability, interest, knowledge of the local pastoral communities, and relevant experiences and skills, including language and communication skills (for more details, please see sections below).
Data Collection Notes
The surveys were conducted by the pastoralist organizations themselves. Each of them relied on a highly variable number of enumerators (from 10 to more than one thousand), and on one or more supervisors validating the collected data. The enumerators were selected by the organizations based on their information technology (IT) skills, level of education, availability, interest, knowledge of the local pastoral communities, and relevant experiences and skills, including language and communication skills.
For the first survey, the Mongolian NFPUG targeted 159,219 pastoralist households living in the different aimags (See Table 3 in the attached reports for information on the different aimags covered). Given the large number of interviews to be conducted, the Federation printed out the questionnaires and distributed them to the Aimag Federation of Pasture User Groups (AFED). The executive directors of each AFED trained and provided the heads of the sum-level associations of Pasture User Groups (PUG) with the paper-based questionnaires, and they, in turn, did the same with the PUG leaders. Given that the PUG leaders could only conduct the survey in their own PUG, the NFPUG collaborated with the MOFALI in order to conduct the survey also in areas not covered by the Federation. The MOFALI sent official letters to each aimag to invite the local representatives and the land managers to collaborate in the project. In total, around 1,200 data collectors were involved in the process, more than one thousand from the NFPUG, covering 50 percent of the national territory, and more than one hundred covering 30 percent of the territory. Out of the 159,476 targeted households at the beginning, 112,957 interviews were completed.
The survey was conducted in 2 rounds. For the first round, a short questionnaire was submitted to a representative of each household, addressing the following topics:
i) households' socio-demographic characteristics;
ii) livestock numbers and ownership;
iii) land tenure and access; and
iv) water access and use.
For the second round, the questionnaire focussed on the economic activity of pastoralists and their contribution to the national GDP. It covers the following topics:
i) household identification
ii) socio-demographic characteristics
iii) livestock herd composition
iv) products and final destination
v) agricultural production, fishing and hunting activity
vi) income and sales
vii) household expenses
viii) shock and adaptation strategies.
The microdata was anonymized by a Statistician at the Office of Chief Statistician of the Food and Agriculture Organization. All direct identifiers have been removed and standard anonymization techniques were applied.
The users shall not take any action with the purpose of identifying any individual entity (i.e. person, household, enterprise, etc.) in the micro dataset(s). If such a disclosure is made inadvertently, no use will be made of the information, and it will be reported immediately to FAO.
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- The micro dataset will only be used for statistical and/or research purposes;
- Any results derived from the micro dataset will be used solely for reporting aggregated information, and not for any specific individual entities or data subjects;
- The users shall not take any action with the purpose of identifying any individual entity (i.e. person, household, enterprise, etc.) in the micro dataset(s). If such a disclosure is made inadvertently, no use will be made of the information, and it will be reported immediately to FAO;
- The micro dataset cannot be re-disseminated by users or shared with anyone other than the individuals that are granted access to the micro dataset by FAO.
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.