Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis and Nutrition Survey 2009
Socio-Economic/Monitoring Survey [hh/sems]
The 2009 Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis & Nutrition Survey (CFSVANS) is a joint initiative and has been undertaken with the objective of analyzing trends over time in comparison with other more recent secondary data, measuring the extent and depth of food and nutrition insecurity and vulnerability, and identifying the underlying causes.
It is the second time that this type of survey has been conducted in Rwanda, the previous one was the CFSVA that took place in 2006. The 2009 CFSVANS has collected indicators on human and social capital, natural capital, physical capital, economic capital and livelihood strategies, food consumption; and in addition, health and nutrition, not included in the 2006 study. Also, the CFSVANS has integrated a risk and vulnerability context module thus determining the most commonly experienced shocks by the sampled households at the district level.
As significant progress continues to be made by the Rwandan economy following various recovery and growth strategies, certain elements remain crucial. The food and nutrition security of the population remains a key building block in not only consolidating the gains already made thus far but also further accelerating the rate of growth towards the realization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Thus, the 2009 Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis and Nutrition survey (CFSVANS) was undertaken with the objective of analyzing trends over time in comparison with the 2006 CFSVA and the 2005 RDHS, as well as, with other more recent secondary data, measuring the extent and depth of food and nutrition insecurity and vulnerability, and identifying the underlying causes.
The five key questions to a CFSVANS are: who are the people currently facing food insecurity and malnutrition; how many are they; where do they live; why are they food insecure and/or malnourished and; how can food assistance and interventions make a difference in reducing poverty, hunger and supporting livelihoods?
In order to provide answers to these questions, specifically, the assessment sought to:
-Identify geographic and socio-economic groups that are food insecure or vulnerable to food insecurity;
-highlight the nature and causes of food insecurity among each group;
-Identify the major risks and constraints to improving food security;
-Evaluate assistance needs at the short, medium and long range;
- Support the development of an appropriate targeting system;
- Better define the role of GoR's development partners including WFP in promoting food security strengthening programs;
- Determine the prevalence of nutritional status of vulnerable groups (children aged 6 - 59 months and non-pregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years old);
-Determine the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding as a key Infant and Young Child Feeding strategy;
-Establish the linkage between household food security and nutritional status of children in Rwanda.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v2.1: Edited, anonymous dataset for public distribution.
The CFSVA & NS 2009 has collected indicators on health and nutrition, not included in the 2006 study.
The 2009 CFSVANS has collected indicators on human and social capital, natural capital, physical capital, economic capital and livelihood strategies, food consumption, and health and nutrition. In addition, the CFSVANS has integrated a risk and vulnerability context module thus determining the most commonly experienced shocks by the sampled households at the district level.
Rural household members
Producers and sponsors
National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda
Ministry of Economics Planification and Finance
United Nations World Food Programme
World Food Programme
United Nations’ Children Fund-Rwanda
World Vision Rwanda
ONE UN Fund
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (Gates)
Ministry of Agriculture and Animal resources
Government of Rwanda
Ministry of Health
Government of Rwanda
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning
Government of Rwanda
Ministry of Local Government and Administration
Government of Rwanda
The Heads of the Households
The WFP team in HQ and the Regional Bureau
Rwanda is administratively divided into four provinces (Northern Province, Southern Province, Eastern Province and Western Province) plus Kigali City and a total of 30 districts. Districts are further divided in sectors and cells. The 2009 Comprehensive Food Security Vulnerability Analysis and Nutrition Survey (CFSVANS) was designed to provide statistically representative information at the sub-provincial level. To facilitate comparison with existing studies, it was decided to define strata using administrative limits rather than food economy zones (as in 2006). Because of the large number of districts, it was decided to define strata that would be either single districts or a group of districts. Districts that were identified as similar with regards to their socio-economic and agroenvironmental characteristics were grouped together. A total of 16 strata were defined including 8 districts and 8 groups of districts. Kigali City was not included in the sample. Selected strata include Nyagatare-Gatsibo-Kayonza, Kirehe-Ngoma-Rwamagana, and Bugesera (Eastern Province), Musanze-Burera, Gakenke, and Rulindo-Gicumbi (Northern Province), Rubavu, Nyabihu, Ngororero, Rutsiro-Karongi, and Nyamasheke-Rusizi (Western Province), and, Kamonyi-Muhanga-Ruhango, Nyanza, Huye, Gisagara, and Nyamagabe-Nyaruguru (Southern Province).
Within each stratum, NISR implemented a two-stage sampling procedure to select households using an approach that is standardized for statistical studies in Rwanda. Zones de Dénombrement (ZD, enumeration areas) were selected first, followed by households using 2007 population estimates based on the 2002 census. The ZDs are a sampling unit that is smaller than a sector. A total of 450 ZD were selected. In each stratum, the probability of the ZDs to be selected was equal to the number of ZDs in the stratum divided by the number of ZDs. In each stratum, ZDs were randomly selected. Within each sampled ZD, a total of 12 households were interviewed, resulting in a total expected sample size of 5,400 households.
All of the households were interviewed. Enumerators were provided with clear instructions on which households to interview, and how to find them. Supervisors were provided with a list of over-sampled households in the event that a household had to be replaced.
Because this study also focuses on the relation between nutrition and food security, it was decided during the study design that only households with children aged below 5 years old would be included in the sample. This imposed some limitations in the ability to draw conclusions about all the households in Rwanda; as explained in the limitations section.
Taking into consideration the sampling methodology summarized above, adjustment weights were computed to provide results representative at country level. The household probability of selection is equal to the product of a household’s probability of being selected in a ZD by the probability of the ZD of being sampled.
The inverse of this probability is the design weight. The design weight is divided by the product of the total number of households in the population divided by the number of sampled households. The result is the normalized weights which were used in all analyses.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Face-to-face paper [f2f]
After the training, enumerators went to the field in teams of 5 individuals including a team leader. In addition there were 10 national supervisors.
Data Collection Notes
Data collection for the survey was conducted by the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR) in partnership with World Food Programme, UNICEF, World Vision Rwanda, MINAGRI, MINECOFIN, MINALOC and MoH after the survey protocol had been cleared by the National Ethics Committee. A total of 150 enumerators participated in a 9 days-training prior to data collection. The purpose of the training was to familiarize the enumerators with the protocol and questionnaires used for the study and ensure that the study was conducted in a standardized manner. It covered instructions on how to select respondents, conduct interviews and take anthropometric measurements. The training included field testing and practice sessions. After the training, enumerators went to the field in teams of 5 individuals including a team leader. In addition there were 10 national supervisors.
National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda
To allow for comparison over time, the 2009 CFSVA and Nutrition Survey used a standard questionnaire similar to the one used for the 2006 CFSVA. In 2006, face validity of the questionnaire was examined by local and food security experts and the questionnaire was piloted among a random sample of people not included in the study. It was a structured questionnaire using mainly close-ended questions with response options provided to the enumerators. For several questions, respondents were allowed to provide more than one response.The survey instrument sought to collect quantitative data on 13 components: (1) demographics; (2) housing and facilities; (3) household and productive assets; (4) inputs to livelihoods; (5) migration and remittances; (6) sources of credit; (7) agricultural production; (8) expenditure; (9) food sources and consumption; (10) shocks and food
security; (11) programme participation; (12) maternal health and nutrition; and (13) child health and nutrition.
In addition to the household survey, a community questionnaire was administered to a key informant, who was an official representative of the area, including the Executive Secretary of the Cell, or any individual responsible for administrative services at Cell level. The community questionnaire was developed using an approach similar to that of the household questionnaire. Questions were open-ended and the questionnaires covered four main aspects; migration and seasonal movement of population, health, external assistance (food aid), and market prices.
The questionnaires were developed in English and administered in Kinyarwanda. Careful training was conducted to reduce individual variations on how enumerators interpreted the questionnaire and understood the questions.
Data entry was conducted by NISR using CSPro. The database was then exported to SPSS for analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted by WFP in Rwanda and Rome, with the support of NISR. SPSS and ADDAWIN were used to conduct PCA and cluster analysis.5 Z-scores for wasting, stunting and underweight were calculated using WHO Anthro. All other analyses were done using SPSS.
A series of data quality tables and graphs are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
-Food Items, Groups and Weights for Calculation of the FCS
-Household characteristics associated with food consumption
-Child nutrition by livelihood, wealth index and FCS
-The people facing food insecurity and vulnerability
-Sample and Demographic Characteristics by Strata (CFSVA 2009)....
These are public use files, accessible to all. The data provided by the survey will be useful not only for national and international stakeholders directly engaged in the fight against Food Insecurity but also for public administration, private sector, civil society, researchers and other experts and institutions interested in the issue.