This is the fourth Agricultural Census to be carried out in Tanzania, the first one was conducted in 1971/72, the second in 1993/94 and 1994/95 (during 1993/94 data on household characteristics and livestock count were collected and data on crop area and production in 1994/95), and the third was conducted in 2002/03.
The census collected detailed data on crop production, crop marketing, crop storage, livestock production, fish farming, and poverty indicators. In addition to this, the census was large in its scope and coverage as it provides data that can be disaggregated at district level and thus allow comparisons with the 2002/03 National Sample Census of Agriculture. The census covered smallholders in rural areas only and all the large scale farms.
The 2007/08 Agriculture Sample Census Survey (ASCS) was designed to meet the data needs of a wide range of users down to district level including policy makers at local, regional and national levels, rural development agencies, funding institutions, researchers, NGOs, farmer organisations, etc. The dataset is both more numerous in its sample and detailed in its scope and coverage, so as to meet the user demand. The census was carried out in order to:
· Identify structural changes if any, in the size of farm household holdings, crop and livestock production, farm input and implement use. It also seeks to determine if there are any improvements in rural infrastructure and in the level of agriculture household living conditions;
· Provide benchmark data on productivity, production and agricultural practices in relation to policies and interventions promoted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security and other stake holders.
· Obtain benchmark data that will be used to address specific issues such as: food security, rural poverty, gender, agro-processing, marketing and service delivery.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The census covered agriculture in detail as well as many other aspects of rural development and was conducted using three different questionnaires:
·Small scale farm questionnaire
·Community level questionnaire
·Large scale farm questionnaire
Trade, Industry and Markets
Small scale and Large Scale Farmers within the community.
Producers and sponsors
National Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Planning and Empowerment
Office of Chief Government Statistician-Zanzibar
Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs
Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security and Cooperatives
Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries
Ministry of Water and Irrigation
Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Environment, Zanzibar
The Prime Minister's Office, Regional Administration and Local Government
Ministry of Industries, Trade and Marketing
Food and Agriculture Organization
The Censuses and Survey Technical Working Group
The Government of Tanzania
The Department for International Development
The Japanese Government through the Japan International Cooperation Agency
The Mainland sample consisted of 3,192 villages. The total Mainland sample was 47,880 agricultural households, while in Zanzibar a total of 317 Enumeration Areas (EAs) were selected and 4,755 agriculture households were covered.
The villages were drawn from the National Master Sample (NMS) developed by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) to serve as a national framework for the conduct of household-based surveys in the country. The NMS was developed from the 2002 Population and Housing Census.
The number of villages/Enumeration Areas (EAs) were selected for the first stage with a probability proportional to the number of villages/EAs in each district. In the second stage, 15 households were selected from a list of agricultural households in each Village/EA using systematic random sampling.
The sample design was a stratified two-stage sample, where the rural part of Tanzania was stratified into districts. The first stage (Primary Stage) units were villages in the case of Tanzania Mainland and rural enumeration areas in the case of Tanzania Zanzibar. In the first stage, villages/EAs were selected in each rural part of the district. About 27 villages/rural EAs per district were selected. The sample was expected to give estimates of different parameters with error margin of 5 percent at 95 confidence level.
The selection of villages/rural EAs was as follows:
- All villages/rural EAs were selected if the number of villages/rural EAs in the district was less than or equal to 27;
- 27 villages/rural EAs were selected if the number of villages/rural EAs in the district was greater than 27; and
- All villages covered during the 2002/03 census were considered. Additional villages were sampled in the new districts to reach the required number of 27 sampled villages.
In the second stage, farming households were selected in each of the selected villages/EAs. A sample of 15 farming households was selected per selected village/rural EA. The villages/EAs in the first stage were selected with probability proportional to the number of households in the village (PPS). The cumulative total method was used to achieve the PPS selection of villages/EAs. In the second stage (Secondary Stage), farming households were selected using a systematic random sampling procedure whereby a list of farming households was compiled from each selected village/EA and a systematic random sample was then drawn.
Basic Formula for Estimation:
In the sample, the primary stage unit was the village/rural EA. The estimates obtained were for the village/rural EA, rural part of the District, rural part of the Region and rural part of the Nation.
The selection of the villages/rural EAs was with probability proportional to the number of households in the village/rural EA and systematic random selection procedure was used to select households.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Face-to-face paper [f2f]
Data editing took place at a number of stages. The following procedures were carried out:
- Manual cleaning exercise was done prior to scanning. Questionnaires found dirty or damaged and generally unsuitable for scanning were put aside for manual data entry.
- CSPro was used for data entry of all Large Scale Farms and Community based questionnaires.
- Scanning and ICR data capture technology for the smallholder questionnaire was also done.
- There was also an interactive validation during the ICR extraction process.
- The use of a batch validation program developed in CSPro. This was used in order to identify inconsistencies within a questionnaire.
- Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to produce the census tabulations.
- Microsoft Excel was used to organize the tables, charts and compute additional indicators.
- Arc GIS (Geographical Information System) was used in producing the maps.
- Microsoft Word was used in compiling and writing up the reports.
Confidentiality of respodents is guaranteed by section 20 of Tanzania Statistics act number 1 of 2002. Before being granted access to the dataset, all users must formally agree that:
1. All identifying information such as the name and address of respondent has been removed;
2. The information is disclosed in a manner that is not likely to enable the identification of the particular person or undertaking or business to which it relates;
3. There is no attempt to identify any particular person or undertaking or business;
4. Use of information for research or statistically purpose only;
5. Not to disclose the information to any other person, organization;
6. When required by the Director General, return all documents made available to him to the Director General;
7. Comply with the directions given by the Director General relating to the records;
8. Every person involved in the research or statistical project for which information is disclosed pursuant to this section shall make the declaration of secrecy set out in the first schedule.
Tanzania NBS considered three levels of accessibility:
1) Public use files, accessible by all
2) Licensed datasets, accessible under certain conditions
3) Datasets only accessible on location, for certain datasets
The dataset has been anonymized and available as a public use dataset. It accessible to all for statistical and research purposes only, under the following terms and conditions:
1. The data and other material will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organization without the written agreement of the National Bureau of Statistics.
2. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
3. No attempt will be made to produce links among dataset provided by the National Bureau of Statistics, or among data from the (National Bureau of Statistics) and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations
4. No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identify of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the National Bureau of Statistics.
5. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
"National Bureau of Statistics, Agriculture Sample Census Survey 2007/2008, version 1.0 of the public use dataset (Dec 2011) provided by the National Bureau of Statistics, www.nbs.go.tz".
Disclaimer and copyrights
"The user of the data acknowledges that, National Bureau of Statistics is the original collector of the data, the authorised distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences without a written agreement from the National Bureau of Statistics"