Survey on Costs and Returns of Tomato Production 2017
Agricultural Survey [ag/oth]
The last Survey on Costs and Returns of Tomato Production was done in 1998. The production costs and returns data generated from the 1998 survey were rather old and may no longer be reflective of the current situation. To address this concern, the PSA conducted the 2017 Survey on Costs and Returns of Tomato Production.
The Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) recognizes the importance of generating data on costs and returns of tomato production. The production costs and returns data are among the highly requested information from major users such as policy analysts, national accounts compilers, farmers and other entrepreneurs in the agricultural sector. For tomato farmers, production costs and returns data can serve as basis for the improvement of their efficiency and profitability. For both government and non-government planners and policy makers, the data can be used in designing appropriate programs and projects to boost the growth and development of the tomato industry.
The general objective of the survey is to generate data on costs and returns of producing tomato. Specifically, the survey aims to:
· establish an up-to-date production costs structure;
· determine indicators of profitability such as gross and net returns, returns above cash cost, returns above variable cost, etc.;
· come up with updated data sets on average use of material and labor inputs; and,
· generate other related socio-economic variables.
The 2017 Survey on Costs and Returns of Tomato Production covered tomato farmers in the six (6) identified top producing provinces from each major island group; namely, Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur in Luzon, Iloilo and Cebu in Visayas and Bukidnon and Misamis Oriental in Mindanao. Particularly, those farmers who had the last completed cropping cycle of tomato within the reference period and knowledgeable on the details of tomato farming, particularly investments, inputs usage, farming expenses and disposition of produce were the target respondents of the survey.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the survey included the following:
SECTION A. FARM LOCATION
· This section collected information on the geographic location where the sample tomato farm was located.
SECTION B. SAMPLE IDENTIFICATION
· This section gathered the demographic characteristics of the sample farmer such as name, residence, age, sex, educational attainment, main occupation and years engaged in tomato farming.
SECTION C. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FARM
· This section collected basic information about the farm(s) operated by the sample farmer i.e. number of farm parcels operated, area planted and harvested to tomato, tenurial status of the focus parcel, month planted/harvested,type of tomato planted, seed variety and its sources.
SECTION D. FARM INVESTMENTS (owned and used in the focus parcel during reference period)
· This section contained information on all investment items owned and used/utilized by the sample farmer in tomato production during the last completed cropping cycle within September 2016 to May 2017 for Luzon and Visayas provinces and January 2017 to September 2017 for Mindanao provinces. The investment items had at least one year of estimated useful life.
SECTION E. MATERIAL INPUTS (used in the focus parcel during reference period)
· This section gathered information on the usage and costs of material inputs of the sample farmer in his/her tomato production during the last completed cropping period.
SECTION F. LABOR INPUTS (in focus parcel during reference period)
· This section collected information pertaining to labor utilization in the production of tomato during the reference period. The sources of labor were operator, family, exchange labor (“bayanihan”) and hired labor. The latter included permanent worker, contract labor or “pakyaw” system wherein the performance of multiple farming activities was contracted for a certain amount.
SECTION G. OTHER PRODUCTION COSTS (in focus parcel during reference period)
· This section contained information on other items of production cost incurred on the focus parcel during the reference period. Payments may be cash, imputed or non-cash. In case of non-cash payments or payments in kind, the total value of goods was converted to cash equivalent.
SECTION H. PRODUCTION AND DISPOSITION (in focus parcel during reference period)
· This section gathered information on the gross volume of tomato harvested in the focus parcel during the last completed cropping cycle within September 2016 to May 2017 for Luzon and Visayas provinces and January 2017 to September 2017 for Mindanao provinces as well as the breakdown of disposition (i.e. sold/to be sold to trader, processor, direct consumer, given away, for home-based processing, wastage, etc.).
SECTION I. PRODUCTION RELATED INFORMATION (in focus parcel)
· This section collected information on the problems affecting tomato production during the reference period.
SECTION J. MARKETING RELATED INFORMATION (in focus parcel)
· This section contained information on the buyers of the produce and problems encountered in marketing tomato produce during the reference period.
SECTION K. ACCESS TO CREDIT (in focus parcel)
· This section gathered information on loans availed by the sample farmer/operator for use in tomato production during the reference period.
SECTION L. FARMER'S PARTICIPATION IN TOMATO PROGRAMS / PROJECTS
· This section collected information on the farmer's participation in tomato program and projects during the reference period.
SECTION M. OTHER INFORMATION
· This section gathered information relative to the perceived effect of climate change in tomato production and the sample farmer/ operator's membership in any farmers' organization and benefits they received from the organization.
SECTION N. PLANS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
· This section compiled the plans and recommendations of the sample farmer/operator for the improvement of his/her tomato production.
Tomato farmers in the Philippines who had complete cropping cycle within the reference period.
Producers and sponsors
Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA)
National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA)
Government of the Philippines
The top fifteen (15) tomato producing barangays in the province served as the sampling frame. These were identified by the Provincial Statistics Offices (PSOs) using the available information on tomato production. The ranking of barangays was based on the volume of tomato production, total area cultivated for tomato and number of tomato farms/farmers during the year 2016-2017. The list was updated through interview of key informants such as Municipal Agricultural Officers (MAOs), Agricultural Technicians (ATs) and Barangay Officials.
The domain of the survey was the province. A two-stage sampling design was employed with the barangay as the primary sampling unit (PSU) and the sample farmer as the secondary sampling unit (SSU). The top producing barangays were selected from an ordered list of barangays.
The sample farmers were drawn by means of simple random sampling, a standard probability-based sample design, which is described in the Handbook on Agricultural Cost of Production Statistics, Global Strategy of the United Nations Statistical Commission, February 2016.
The budget was the main factor for setting the sample size which was set at seventy-five (75) equally allocated to each sample barangay i.e., five (5) sample farmers for each sample barangay. The total number of sample barangays per province was fifteen or less. If the number of major producing barangays that contributed to 80 percent based on area planted was more than 15, then the top 15 barangays were selected. Those provinces with less than 15 barangays that produced tomato were completely enumerated. Since the survey intended to generate average estimates of costs of production and returns and not total estimates, the target number of samples per province was a good indicator to get the said information.
During data collection, the names and addresses of tomato farmers residing in the barangay were obtained from the office of the barangay chairman or any other key informants in the barangay. It served as the statistical researcher's (SR) starting point in searching for potential sample farmers. The target numbers of tomato farmers in the sample barangays were obtained using snowball sampling. A set of screening questions was applied to confirm if those listed actually planted and harvested tomato during the reference period and satisfied the other criteria to qualify for enumeration.
Whether the interviewed farmer was qualified for the survey or not, he/she was asked to identify other tomato farmers in the barangay to be added in the initial list. The search continued, and the farmer who met the criteria specified in the screening questions was qualified as sample for the survey and was interviewed using the questionnaire for the 2017 Survey on Costs and Returns of Tomato Production. If the interview was successfully carried out (meaning, all the needed information had been supplied), the household number, full name and residential address of the sample farmer were written in the List of Sample Farmers. The SR selected again any farmer in the initial list as the next potential sample for the survey. The process continued until the required number of samples in the barangay was obtained.
A total of 450 sample tomato farmers were enumerated for this survey. This was equivalent to 75 sample tomato farmers for each of the six (6) covered provinces. All these sample farmers were successfully interviewed, thus, a response rate of 100 percent.
Dates of Data Collection
For Luzon and Visayas
Data Collection Mode
Face-to-face paper [f2f]
Editing and coding of survey returns were done at the provincial offices upon submission of the accomplished questionnaires by the SRs. These activities were undertaken to ensure the quality of data that were collected.
Refer to related materials 2017 Survey on Costs and Returns of Tomato Production Editing Guidelines for more information.
Philippine Statistics Authority
Knowledge Management and Communications Division
Philippine Statistics Authority
Agricultural Accounts Division
Philippine Statistics Authority
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1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the PSA.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified in the dataset.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately be reported to the PSA.
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