Living Standards Survey, Wave 3 (extension), 2007-2008
Living Standards Measurement Study [hh/lsms]
The 2007-2008 is the third wave of Timor-Leste Living Standards Survey (LSS). The first national survey, the Timor-Leste Living Standards Survey (LSS), was undertaken in 2001 during the months of August to November. The 2001 LSS had a modest though nationally representative sample of 1800 households from 100 sucos. Being the first national living standards survey of its kind following the independence referendum of August 1999, the LSS-1 provided a wealth of information on living conditions in the country as an input into the first National Development Plan. The second national survey of living standards for Timor-Leste was undertaken in 2007 to update this information and is also expected to provide an input into the development of the second National Development Plan. This study is an extension survey of the LSS-2 which was designed to re-visit one third of the households to explore different facets of household welfare and behaviour in the country, while also being able to make use of information collected in the LSS-2 survey for analytic purposes.
In 2007-2008 a multi-topic household survey, the Timor Leste Living Standards Survey (LSS-2) was conducted in East Timor with the main objectives of developing a system of poverty monitoring and supporting poverty reduction, and to monitor human development indicators and progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. The LSS-3 extension survey was designed to re-visit one third of the households interviewed under the LSS-2 to explore different facets of household welfare and behaviour in the country, while also being able to make use of information collected in the LSS-2 survey for analytic purposes. The four new topics investigated in the extension survey are:
- Risk and Vulnerability: This section is designed to help us understand the dimensions and sources of household-level vulnerability to uninsured risks in Timor Leste, and the efficacy and welfare effects of various risk-management strategies (prevention, mitigation, coping) and mechanisms (private as well as public, formal as well as informal) households do (or do not) have access to. The work in Timor Leste is part of a program of analytic work and policy dialogue throughout the EAP region, more information on which can be found on the World Bank website.
- Land Degradation and Poverty: This section of the questionnaire is designed to identify proximate causes of deforestation through land use patterns and links with poverty; understand strengths and failures of common land resource management institutions (property rights, enforcement); understand the impact of the Siam Weed problem on household welfare.
- Justice for Poor: The Justice for the Poor/Access to Justice (J4P/A2J) module of the survey will serve mainly as an initial diagnostic for project development in the country. The topics we would be interested in covering would be Dispute Processing/Resolution; Social Legal Norms and Perceptions of Efficiency in Government (Local, Sub-District, District and National level).
- Access to Financial Services: The financial service work has the following two objectives: (i) to collect data on access to and use financial services (savings and credit), both formal and informal, and (ii) assess the quality of information on access to financial services obtained from head of households vs. from all adults - i.e. is there a bias introduced by not asking all household members, do the characteristics of the head or the household affect this (gender, age, nuclear family, urban, education levels, wealth, etc.).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Household level data: Housing, Transfers, borrowing and savings, Subjective wellbeing
- Individual level data: Household Roster, Education, Health, Fertility, Employment, Aids, and Anthropometrics
- Housing: Ownership and expenditures
- Access to facilities
- Health: Access to health care providers
- Food and non-food consumption and expenditures
- Durables: consumption & expenditures
- Employment: Jobs
- Self-employment and business
- Farming: Plots, Crops, Farming equipment, Agricultural inputs, Labour, Forestry, Livestock, Fishing
- Transfers, borrowing and savings
- Other income
- Social capital
2008 extension survey:
- Household Information
- Land Management
- Forest Use
- Individual Financial Information
- Shocks and Vulnerability
- Incidence of Shocks and Household Responses
- Future Shocks
- Preventive Health
- Program Participation
- Household Financial Information
- Justice for the Poor
- Community Trust and Decision Making
- Opinion and Perceptions of the Law
- Local Institutions
- Dispute Resolution
Population & Reproductive Health
Food (production, crisis)
Agriculture & Rural Development
Access to Finance
Community Driven Development
Producers and sponsors
National Statistics Directorate
SAMPLE DESIGN FOR THE 2008 EXTENSION SURVEY
Sampling for the LSS-3 Extension survey was a sub-sample of the original LSS-“ sample. The LSS-2 field work was divided into 52 "weeks", with each week being a random subset of the total sample. The sub-sample was chosen by randomly selecting 19 weeks from the original field work schedule. Each week contained seven Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) for a total of 133 PSUs. In each PSU the teams were to interview 12 of the original 15 households, with the remaining three to serve as replacements. The total nominal sample size was thus 1596.
Following the collection and initial analysis of the data, it was determined that data from one district, Manatuto, and partially from another district, Oecussi, were of insufficient quality in certain modules. Therefore, it was decided to repeat the survey in another 25 PSUs of these two districts - six in Manatuto, and 19 in Oecussi. The additional PSUs chosen were randomly selected within the two districts from the remaining non-panel PSUs in the original LSS-2 sample.
The sample weights for the extension survey are indirect weights based on the original probability weights calculated for the LSS-2. The LSS-2 weights were calculated by Juan Muñoz of Sistemas Integrals. These weights were based on each household's selection probability, and then scaled by an adjustment factor, intended to match the demographic projections for the population of urban and rural areas in the five major regions of Timor Leste in mid-2007.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The LSS-3 had a significant number of responses in which the response is "other". In general, if the response clear fit into a pre-coded response category, it was recoded into that category during the cleaning and compilation process. Some responses where additional information was provided were not recoded even though they clearly fit into pre-coded categories. For example, agriculture project" would be recoded into the "agriculture" category, while "community garden" would not. Data users can either use the additional information, or re-code into categories as they see fit. Potential Data Quality Issues in 2008 Extension survey
Potential Data Quality Issues in 2008 Extension survey
Similarly, to the individual roster of the previous section, the plots listed in the previous survey are listed on the pre-printed cover page and all changes noted. The agricultural section, similarly, to the other sections, suffers from problems with open-ended questions. This is particularly the case for the question asking what community restrictions are placed on the clearing of forest land (section 2d). The translation from the original question was vague (using the Tetun word for "boundary" for "restriction,") and therefore many of the responses relate to physical boundaries on the land, such as stone walls and tree lines. Additionally, the translation of all answers from Tetun into English is imperfect, and those wishing to use this information for analytical purposes are advised to also refer to the original Tetun. Analysts should be careful in using the data from the open ended questions because of translation problems. Also, it was noted during the training and field work that many interviewers had significant difficulties understanding definitions with some of the land management and investment questions. In general, however, all agricultural data may be used for analysis, sampling weights w3.
It should be noted that the quality of the data for the finance experiment (comparing the knowledge of the household head to that of other household members) was not sufficient for the experiment to be deemed a success. Subsequent spot-checking revealed that in many cases, interviewers asked the household head about the financial activities of various household members instead of asking them directly. Therefore, this data should only be used to measure the access to finance at the household level. The finance sections were not repeated during the additional interviews in the replacement PSUs. Sampling weights w1 should be used when doing any analysis with this data.
Shocks and Vulnerability:
It was determined following the initial round of data collection that the shocks and vulnerability module had some issues with uneven interview quality. Two reasons were listed as potential causes of the data quality issues: (1) fundamental inability to adequately translate both the word and concept of a "shock" into the Timorese context, and (2) incomplete / questionable responses to the health shock questions in particular. Analysis for health shocks should drop the "questionable" households and use the "re-interview" households, sampling weights w2.
Justice for the Poor:
Similar to the shocks and vulnerability module, the justice module included a long series of follow up questions if the household indicated having experienced a dispute during the recall period. Again, the number of disputes experienced by the household seemed extremely low compared to expectations. This was particularly a problem with the Manatuto district in which no disputes were recorded during the first set of TLSLS2-X interviews. Analysis for the disputes section of the justice module should drop the "questionable" households and use the "re-interview" households, sampling weights w2. The justice model also has a number of instances in which the specifications for "other" were not recorded. Every effort was made to ensure this data was as complete as possible, but gaps do remain. Also, data users should use caution when using the imputed rank variable in section 5D. The rank in terms of importance was not explicitly captured in the data entry software, and the rankings therefore had to be imputed from the order they were listed in the original data entry. Inconsistencies may exist in this variable.
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1. The data are supplied solely for the use described in this form and will not be made available to other organizations or individuals. Other organizations or individuals may request the data directly.
2. Three copies of all publications, conference papers, or other research reports based entirely or in part upon the requested data will be supplied to:
National Statics Directorate
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- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
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