The Kagera Health and Development Survey 2004 (KHDS 2004) took place in 2004 as the fifth survey wave. Earlier waves of the survey include the four waves from 1991 till 1994.
The Kagera Health and Development Survey was conducted to estimate the economic impact of the death of prime-age adults on surviving household members. This impact was primarily measured as the difference in well-being between households with and without the death of a prime-age adult (15-50), over time. An additional hypothesis was that households in communities with high mortality rates might be less successful in coping with a prime-age adult death. Thus, the research design called for collecting extensive socioeconomic information from households with and without adult deaths in communities with high and low adult mortality rates. Data collected by the KHDS can be used to estimate the "direct costs” of illness and mortality in terms of out-of-pocket expenditures, the "indirect costs" in terms of foregone earnings of the patient, and the "coping costs” in terms of changes in the well-being of other household members and in the allocation on of time and resources within the household as these events unfold. The KHDS was an economic survey. It did not attempt to measure knowledge, attitudes, behaviours or practices related to HIV infection or AIDS in households or communities. It also did not collect blood samples or attempt to measure HIV seroprevalence; this would have substantially affected the costs and complexity of the research and possibly the willingness of households to participate. Information on the cause of death in the KHDS household survey is based on the reports of surviving household members; the researchers maintained that household coping will respond to the perceived cause of death, irrespective of whether the deceased actually died of AIDS. Lastly, the KHDS did not attempt to measure the psycho-social impact of HIV infection or AIDS deaths.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
(a) HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE
Section 0 Basic Survey information
Section 1 Household Roster
Section 2 Previous Children Residing Elsewhere
Section 3 Main Activities of the Household
Section 4 Information on Parents
Section 5 Education
Section 6 Health
Section 7 Activities and Non-Labour Income
Section 8 Individual Expenditures
Section 9 Migration
Section 10 Shocks Experienced in the Past 10 Years
Section 11 Farming
Section 11 Agriculture
Section 12 Livestock
Section 13 Non-Farm Self-Employment
Section 14 Housing
Section 15 Durable Goods, Expenditures, Inheritance, and Bride Price
Section 16 Food Consumption and Expenditures
Section 17 Informal Organizations, Ability to Cope, Assistance from Organizations
Section 18 Gifts and Loans Received/Sent
Separate Form Anthropometry
Separate Form Mortality of Previous Household Members
(b) COMMUNITY QUESTIONNAIRE
Section 0 Selecting respondents
Section 1 Demographic information
Section 2 Economy and Infrastructure
Section 3 Education
Section 4 Health
Section 5 Agriculture
Section 6 Culture
Section 7 Shocks in the past 10 years
(c) PRICE QUESTIONNAIRE
Part I Food Prices
Part II Pharmaceutical Prices
Part III Non-Food Prices
(d) SCHOOL QUESTIONNAIRE
Part A School characteristics, enrolment and fees
Part B Textbooks, Standard 7 completion, number of teachers employed and assistance or contributions
Agriculture & Rural Development
Food (production, crisis)
Migration & Remittances
Population & Reproductive Health
Access to Finance
The KHDS attempts to re-interview all respondents interviewed in the original KHDS 1991-1994, irrespective of whether the respondent had moved out of the original village, region or country or was residing in a new household.
Producers and sponsors
Economic Development Initiatives
Danish Agency for Development Assistance
Knowledge for Change Trust Fund at the World Bank
Sample size of this study was 900 households following the KHDS 91-94 Household Sampling procedure:
(a) SAMPLE DESIGN AND SELECTION
Qualitative studies of small samples of households can point to hypotheses about the ways in which fatal adult illness affects households. However, policymakers need to know which households are suffering the most, the size of the impact, the extent to which they suffer more than other households in a poor country, and the potential costs and effects of assistance programs. For this purpose, the sample of households must be representative of the population, a random sample for which the probability of selecting each household from the whole population is known. The KHDS used a random sample that was stratified geographically and according to several measures of adult mortality risk. This strategy allowed the team to ensure an adequate number of households with an adult death in the sample while retaining the ability to extrapolate the results to the entire population. The results from the household survey show that stratification of the sample on mortality risk at both the community and household level proved to be worthwhile. Among the 816 households in the original sample that began the survey in the first passage, 91 had an adult death in the course of the survey-more than three times the expected number (25) had the households been drawn at random with no stratification. The 816 households that began the survey in the first passage were observed, on average, for 1.6 years, generating a total of 1,322.7 years of observation. The average probability of an adult death per household per year, according to the 1988 Tanzania Census, is 0.0188. Thus, the expected number of deaths from a random sample of 816 households observed for 1.6 years is 25. Because households were added to the sample to compensate for attrition, a total of 918 households were eventually interviewed at least once. Between the first and last interview, 102 of these households had an adult death, compared to 27 households that would have been expected to have a death from a non-stratified sample.
(b) SAMPLING PROCEDURE
The KHDS household sample was drawn in two stages, with stratification based on geography in the first stage and mortality risk in both stages. It used a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure.
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Kagera Health and Development Survey 2004. Ref. TZA_2004_KHDS_v01_M. The World Bank.
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